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What motivates human behavior? Maslow’s hierarchy of needsis one of the best-knowntheories of motivation. According to humanist psychologistAbraham Maslow, our actions are motivated in order to achieve certain needs.

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    Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsOverview of NeedsClick Play to Learn More About Maslows PyramidDeficiency Needs vs. Growth NeedsPhysiological NeedsSecurity and Safety NeedsSocial NeedsEsteem NeedsSelf-Actualization NeedsPress Play for Advice On Reaching Your DreamsCriticisms of Maslows TheoryWhy Was Maslow’s Hierarchy Influential?

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow first introduced his concept of ahierarchy of needsin his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” and his subsequent bookMotivation and Personality. This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.

While some of the existing schoolsof thought the time (such aspsychoanalysisandbehaviorism) tended to focus on problematic behaviors, Maslow was much more interested in learning about what makes people happy and the things that they do to achieve that aim.

As ahumanist, Maslow believed that people have an inborn desire to be self-actualized, that is,to be all they can be. In order to achieve these ultimate goals, however, a number of more basic needs must be met such as the need for food, safety, love, andself-esteem.

There are five different levels of Maslows hierarchy of needs. Let’s take a closer look Maslows needs starting the lowest level, known as physiological needs.

Overview of Needs

Verywell / Joshua Seong

Maslow’s hierarchy is most often displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the most complex needs are the top of the pyramid.

Needs the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food, water, sleep, and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security.

As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need forlove, friendship, and intimacy becomes important.

Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority. LikeCarl Rogers, Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a person in order to achieve individual potential.


Click Play to Learn More About Maslows Pyramid

This video has been medically reviewed by David Susman, PhD.

Deficiency Needs vs. Growth Needs

Maslow believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior. Physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs, whicharise due to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences.

Maslow termed the highest level of the pyramid as growth needs. These needs don’tstem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person.

While the theory is generally portrayed as a fairly rigid hierarchy, Maslow noted that the order in which these needs are fulfilled does not always follow this standard progression. For example, he notedthat for some individuals, the need forself-esteemis more important than the need for love. For others, the need for creative fulfillment may supersede even the most basic needs.

Physiological Needs

The basic physiological needs are probably fairly apparentthese include the things that are vital to our survival. Some examples of physiological needs include:


In addition to the basic requirements of nutrition, air and temperature regulation, the physiological needs also include such things as shelter and clothing. Maslow also included sexual reproduction in this level of the hierarchy of needs since it is essential to the survival and propagation of the species.

Security and Safety Needs

As we move up to the second level of Maslows hierarchy of needs, the requirements start to become a bit more complex. At this level, the needs for security and safety become primary.

People want control and order in their lives. So, this need for safety and security contributes largely to behaviors this level. Some of the basic security and safety needs include:

    Financial securityHealth and wellnessSafety against accidents and injury

Finding a job, obtaining health insurance and health care, contributing money to a savings account, and moving into a safer neighborhood are all examples of actions motivated by the security and safety needs.

Together, the safety and physiological levels of the hierarchy make up what is often referred to as the basic needs.

Social Needs

The social needs in Maslows hierarchy include such things as love, acceptance, and belonging. At this level, the need for emotional relationships drives human behavior. Some of the things that satisfy this need include:

    FriendshipsRomantic attachmentsFamilySocial groupsCommunity groupsChurches and religious organizations

In order to avoid problems such asloneliness, depression, and anxiety, it is important for people to feel loved and accepted by other people. Personal relationships with friends, family, and lovers play an important role, as does involvement in other groups that might include religious groups, sports teams, book clubs, and other group activities.

Esteem Needs

At the fourth level in Maslows hierarchy is the need for appreciation and respect. When the needs the bottom three levels have been satisfied, the esteem needs begin to play a more prominent role in motivating behavior.

At this point, it becomes increasingly important to gain the respect and appreciation of others. People have a need to accomplish things and then have their efforts recognized. In addition to the need for feelings of accomplishment and prestige, esteem needs include such things asself-esteemand personal worth.

People need to sense that they are valued and by others and feel that they are making a contribution to the world.

Participation in professional activities, academic accomplishments, athletic or team participation, and personal hobbies can all play a role in fulfilling the esteem needs. People who are able to satisfy the esteem needs by achieving good self-esteem and the recognition of others tend to feel confident in their abilities.

Those who lack self-esteem and the respect of others can develop feelings of inferiority. Together, the esteem and social levels make up what is known as the psychological needs of the hierarchy.

Self-Actualization Needs

At the very peak of Maslows hierarchy are the self-actualization needs. “What a man can be, he must be,” Maslow explained, referring to the need people have to achieve their full potential as human beings.

According to Maslows definition of self-actualization, “It may be loosely described as the full use and exploitation of talents, capabilities, potentialities, etc. Such people seem to be fulfilling themselves and to be doing the best that they are capable of doing. They are people who have developed or are developing to the full stature of which they capable.”

Self-actualizingpeople are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others, and interested in fulfilling their potential.

Press Play for Advice On Reaching Your Dreams

Hosted by Editor-in-Chief and therapist Amy Morin, LCSW, this episode of The Verywell Mind Podcast, featuring best-selling author Dave Hollis, shares how to create your best life. Click below to listen now.

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Criticisms of Maslows Theory

Maslow’s theory has become wildly popular both in and out of psychology. The fields of education and business have been particularly influenced by the theory. While popular, Maslow’s concept has not been without criticism. Chief among these:

    Needs don’t follow a hierarchy: While some research showed some tư vấn for Maslow’s theories, most research has not been able to substantiate the idea of a needs hierarchy. Wahba and Bridwell reported that there was little evidence for Maslow’s ranking of these needs and even less evidence that these needs are in a hierarchical order.The theory is difficult to test: Other criticisms of Maslow’s theory note that his definition of self-actualization is difficult to test scientifically. His research on self-actualization was also based on a very limited sample of individuals, including people he knew as well as biographies of famous individuals that Maslow believed to be self-actualized.

Why Was Maslow’s Hierarchy Influential?

Regardless of these criticisms, Maslows hierarchy of needs represents part of an important shift in psychology. Rather than focusing on abnormal behavior and development, Maslow’shumanistic psychologywas focused on the development of healthy individuals.

While there was relatively little research supporting the theory, thehierarchy of needs is well-known and popular both in and out of psychology. In astudypublished in 2011, researchers from the University of Illinois set out to put the hierarchy to the test.

What they discovered is that while thefulfillment of the needs was strongly correlated with happiness, people from cultures all over the world reported that self-actualization and social needs were important even when many of the most basic needs were unfulfilled.

Such results suggest that while these needs can be powerful motivators of human behavior, they do not necessarily take the hierarchical form that Maslow described.


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