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Fluid volume deficit also known as dehydration can be a common occurrence and nursing diagnosis for many patients. Dehydration is when there is a loss of too much fluid from the body toàn thân toàn thân. This leads to a lack of water in the body toàn thân toàn thân’s cells and blood vessels. It is due to more fluids being expelled from the body toàn thân toàn thân than the body toàn thân toàn thân takes in.

Nội dung chính

    Causes 
    At risk population
    Expected Outcomes
    Nursing Assessment for Fluid Volume Deficit
    Nursing Interventions for Fluid Volume Deficit
    References and

    Sources

    What are the signs of fluid volume deficit?
    Which assessment finding is expected for a client with fluid volume deficit?
    What happens when a patient has fluid volume deficit?
    What are the common cause of fluid volume deficit?

Causes 

There

are several reasons an individual may become dehydrated. Below is a brief list of some potential causes: 

Symptoms

There are several signs and symptoms that may be present for an individual suffering from dehydration. Some symptoms can be vague and

a sign for other conditions as well so it is important the nurse is completing a full assessment and brining all the pieces of the assessment together in making clinical decisions. A brief list of signs and symptoms includes: 

    Headache  
    Confusion
    Fatigue  
    Dizziness/light-headedness 
    Weakness  
    Dry mouth/dry cough  
    Tachycardia with

    hypotension

    Decreased appetite  
    Muscle cramps 
    Constipation 
    Concentrated urine  
    Dry skin
    Feeling of thirst

For very young children or

infants who are unable to verbalize, additional signs and symptoms may be present that include: 

    Crying without tears 
    No wet diapers for 3 hours or longer 
    High fevers  
    Irritability  
    Sunken eyes  
    Unusually drowsy

At risk population

Some individuals and populations are more risk of developing dehydration than others. These populations include: 

    Elderly

    patient  

    Infants and children  
    Individuals with chronic conditions
    Individuals with complex medication regimens (especially those including the use of diuretics) 
    Active individuals who may not be rehydrating after exercising 

Expected Outcomes

    Patient’s vital signs will remain stable and/or return to patient’s baseline
    Patient’s intake and output will stabilize
    Patient’s lab values will

    return to baseline

    Patient will verbalize measures to take home to maintain hydration/prevent dehydration

Nursing Assessment for Fluid Volume Deficit

1. Complete a thorough head-to-toe assessment.
This will allow the nurse to assess the entire person and put all data together when making clinical decisions and assist in identifying the cause of dehydration.

2. Assess intake and output.
This will allow the

nurse objective data in determining the patient’s net loss of fluid.

3. Assess vital signs.
Vital signs may be abnormal if dehydrated (i.e. tachycardia and/or hypotension).

4. Assess laboratory values.
Patients may have abnormal blood work levels due to dehydration (i.e. abnormal electrolyte levels or renal function).

5. Assess skin turgor.
Loss of skin elasticity can be a sign of

dehydration.

6. Assess urine color and concentration.
Dark and concentrated urine can be a sign of dehydration; patients should produce least 30mL of urine/hour.

7. Auscultate cardiac sounds.
Abnormal cardiac sounds may be heard with severe dehydration and dysrhythmias can develop.

8. Assess cardiac rhythm.
Dysrhythmias may develop if severely dehydrated and if electrolyte abnormalities

are present.

9. Assess mental status.
Severe dehydration may cause alteration in mentation.

Nursing Interventions for Fluid Volume Deficit

1. Encourage/remind patient of the need for oral intake.
As individuals age sometimes there is a loss of thirst, reminding and encouraging individuals may help them to remember the need to continue drinking fluids even if they do not feel they are thirsty.

2.

Administer intravenous hydration if needed.
Severely dehydrated patients or patients unable to take oral hydration may require IV hydration to maintain appropriate hydration level.

3. Educate patient and family on possible causes of dehydration.
Education will help allow the patient and family to have a better understanding of the diagnosis and preventative measures they can take in the future to avoid dehydration.

4.

Administer electrolyte replacements as needed/as ordered.
Dehydration can lead to electrolyte abnormalities, it is important the nurse monitors for this and provides supplemental replacements when needed.

5. Educate patient and family on how to monitor intake and output.
Patients and family members will need to know how to monitor intake and output once discharged home to ensure they are maintaining appropriate hydration level.

6.

Weigh patient daily.
Daily weight measurements will allow the nurse to easily monitor for potential fluid overload when rehydrating patients.

7. Educate patient on the importance of maintaining a proper hydration and nutrition status regularly.
Education will help the patient to become more independent upon discharge and will help them to understand what they can do to prevent further episodes of dehydration.

References and

Sources

Celeveland Clinic. (2022). Dehydration ://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/treatments/9013-dehydration
Mayo Clinic. (2022). Dehydration ://.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dehydration/symptoms-causes/syc-20354086
Thorek Memorial

Hospital. (2014). 14 Surprising causes of dehydration ://.thorek.org/news/14-surprising-causes-of-dehydration

Published on November 21, 2022

Tabitha Cumpian, MSN, RN

Tabitha Cumpian is a registered nurse with a passion for education.

She completed her BSN Edgewood College Nursing School and her MSN with an emphasis in Nursing Education Herzing University. She has a vast clinical background from years of traveling the United States providing nursing care. The majority of her time has been spent in cardiovascular care. She loves educating others in her field, as well as, patients and their family members through healthcare writing.

What are the signs of fluid volume deficit?

Signs and symptoms may include some of the following: postural dizziness, fatigue, confusion, muscle cramps, chest pain, abdominal pain, postural hypotension, or tachycardia. Clinical symptoms usually do not manifest until large fluid losses have occurred.

Which assessment finding is expected for a client with fluid volume deficit?

Assessment findings in a client with a fluid volume deficit include increased respirations and heart rate, decreased CVP, weigh loss, poor skin turgor, dry mucous membranes, decreased urine volume, increased specific gravity of the urine, increased hematocrit, and altered level of consciousness.

What happens when a patient has fluid volume deficit?

Fluid volume deficit also known as dehydration can be a common occurrence and nursing diagnosis for many patients. Dehydration is when there is a loss of too much fluid from the body toàn thân toàn thân. This leads to a lack of water in the body toàn thân toàn thân’s cells and blood vessels.

What are the common cause of fluid volume deficit?

Volume depletion, or extracellular fluid (ECF) volume contraction, occurs as a result of loss of total body toàn thân toàn thân sodium. Causes include vomiting, excessive sweating, diarrhea, burns, diuretic use, and kidney failure.

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