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Quý khách đang tìm kiếm từ khóa Which of the following defines a tendency to focus on objects that relate to our immediate needs or wants Group of answer choices? được Cập Nhật vào lúc : 2022-08-23 22:10:19 . Với phương châm chia sẻ Kinh Nghiệm Hướng dẫn trong nội dung bài viết một cách Chi Tiết 2022. Nếu sau khi Read nội dung bài viết vẫn ko hiểu thì hoàn toàn có thể lại Comments ở cuối bài để Tác giả lý giải và hướng dẫn lại nha.

Nathan Mahr, Shawn Grimsley, Jerry Allison

    Nathan Mahr

    Nathan has taught English
    literature, business, social sciences, history, and writing for over five years. He has a B.A. in Comparative History of Ideas from the University of Washington.

    Nội dung chính

      Time Orientation Definition Long-Term Orientation Short-Term OrientationDefinitions and Key ConceptsWhy Is This Important?Definitions and Key ConceptsWhy Is This Important?Short-term vs Long-term Thought QuestionsRegister to view this lessonUnlock Your EducationResources created by teachers for teachersWhich of these defines the tendency for individuals to attribute?What defines the tendency for individuals to attribute success on an sự kiện or project to their own actions while attributing failure to others?Which of the following is defined as the process of molding behavior through the reciprocal interaction of a person’s cognitions behavior and environment?Which of these best describes a process by which we systematically screen out or discredit information we don’t wish to hear and focus instead on more salient information?

    View bio Instructor Shawn Grimsley

    Shawn
    has a masters of public administration, JD, and a BA in political science.

    View bio Expert Contributor Jerry Allison

    Jerry holds a Doctor of Business Administration and a Master’s in Mathematics. He
    has taught business, math, and accounting for over 25 years.

    View bio

Learn about long-term vs. short-term orientation. Study the time orientation definition, and discover examples of short and long-term orientation cultures. Updated:
05/09/2022

Time Orientation Definition

Geert Hofstede was a Dutch psychologist who conducted extensive research on the influence of culture on human behavior. Geert Hofstede’s research focused on five cultural dimensions: individualism v. collectivism, masculinity v. femininity,
uncertainty avoidance index, power distance, and long-term v. short-term time orientation. There are several prominent criticisms of Hofstede’s work, including that his dimensions do not always accurately reflect reality and that his research does not take into account the potential of fragmentation and change within cultures. However, it is still considered to be one of the most influential theories in the field of cross-cultural psychology. One of Hofstede’s most famous concepts is time
orientation. Time orientation is defined as a cultural dimension that refers to a society’s attitude toward time.

There are two types of time orientation: long-term orientation and short-term orientation. Long-term orientation can be thought of as the degree to which a culture has a pragmatic perspective that is focused on the future. This means that societies with a long-term orientation are willing to sacrifice present-day comforts for the sake of future rewards.
Short-term orientation, on the other hand, can be thought of as the degree to which a society has a perspective that is more tradition-oriented. Societies with short-term orientation are more focused on the present and the past and are less willing to sacrifice present-day comforts for the sake of future rewards. Hofstede’s original research found that long-term orientation was more common in Asian cultures, while short-term orientation was more common in some Western cultures. However,
subsequent research has found that there is considerable variation within and between cultures in terms of time orientation. This means that the two types of time orientation are not always mutually exclusive and that it is possible for a culture to have elements of both.

It is important to distinguish time orientation from a similar concept referred to as chronemics, which is the study of how time is used in communication. Chronemics includes two types of time orientation: monochronic
and polychronic. Monochronic cultures value punctuality and view time as linear. In these cultures, people focus on one thing a time and prefer to do things in sequential order. Polychronic cultures, on the other hand, view time as fluid and value multitasking. In these cultures, people are more likely to do several things once and may not be as concerned with punctuality. These concepts are related to time orientation but are not the same. Time orientation is a cultural dimension that
refers to a society’s overall attitude toward time, while chronemics is the study of how time is used in communication.

Long-Term Orientation

As previously stated, long-term orientation is defined as when a society is focused on the future. This means that people in long-term orientation cultures may be more likely to save money, invest in education, and plan for the future. Long-term orientation cultures tend to be collectivist, which means
that people are more likely to think in terms of “we” rather than “I.” Examples of long-term orientation cultures include China, Nhật bản, and South Korea.

Short-Term Orientation

Short-term orientation is when a society is more focused on the present and the past. This means that people in short-term orientation cultures are more likely to spend money, live for the moment, and value tradition. Short-term orientation cultures tend to be
individualistic, which means that people are more likely to think in terms of “I” rather than “we.” Examples of short-term orientation cultures include the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.

Definitions and Key Concepts

Geert Hofstede developed the concepts of short-term and long-term orientation, which we’ll be exploring in this lesson. In fact, he developed five cultural
dimensions: individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance index, long-term orientation and power distance. His original research of cultural dimensions involved a study of IBM employees from across the world.

Long-term orientation is when you are focused on the future. You are willing to delay short-term material or social success or even short-term emotional gratification in order to prepare for the future. If you have this cultural perspective, you value persistence,
perseverance, saving and being able to adapt.

Short-term orientation is when you are focused on the present or past and consider them more important than the future. If you have a short-term orientation, you value tradition, the current social hierarchy and fulfilling your social obligations. You care more about immediate gratification than long-term fulfillment.

You should note that the concepts of long-term orientation and short-term orientation address the different ways
cultures view time and the importance of the past, present and the future. Cultures demonstrating a short-term orientation will be more concerned with the past and present and will focus their efforts and beliefs on matters related to the short-term, while cultures demonstrating a long-term time orientation will be more concerned with the future and focus their efforts on future-orientated goals.

    Video Quiz
    Course

There are several key differences to understand when discussing long-term orientation vs. short-term orientation. It can be helpful to work through some of
the defining traits of each orientation to better understand the two.

Long Term

    Persistence and Perseverance: A culture that is long-term oriented is one that may value persistence and perseverance. This means that they are more likely to stick with something even when it is difficult because they believe that it will pay off in the long run. Relationships Ordered by Status: In a long-term-oriented culture, relationships are often ordered by
    status. This means that people will have a different level of respect for those who are in a higher position, such as a boss or an elder. Focus on the Future: A focus on the future means that the culture is more likely to make decisions based on what will happen in the future, rather than what is happening in the present. For example, a culture that is focused on the future may be more likely to invest heavily in education, because they believe it will pay off in the long run. Delayed
    Gratification and Saving: Delayed gratification is the ability to wait for something that you want in order to get a better result. For example, a culture that values delayed gratification may be more likely to save money and accrue less debt, because they know that it will pay off in the long run. Relative Morality: Relative morality is the belief that there is no absolute right or wrong, but that what is right or wrong depends on the situation. For example, a culture that has relative
    morality may be more likely to forgive someone who has done something wrong, because they believe that everyone makes mistakes and that forgiveness is important.

Why Is This Important?

Knowing about a person’s cultural time orientation – whether they’re short-term orientated or long-term orientated – is crucial information in management and in negotiations because it plays a large factor in
motivation. Organizations and managers who know the time orientation of their employees will be able to fashion appropriate motivating incentives that align with their orientations, such as a bonus – a short-term incentive – or an additional contribution to an employee’s retirement fund, which is a long-term orientated incentive. Cultural time orientation is also a crucial bit of information in cross-cultural negotiations, as illustrated in this example.

Definitions and Key Concepts

Geert Hofstede developed the concepts of short-term and long-term orientation, which we’ll be exploring in this lesson. In fact, he developed five cultural dimensions: individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance index, long-term orientation and power distance. His original research of cultural dimensions involved a study of IBM employees from across the world.

Long-term orientation is
when you are focused on the future. You are willing to delay short-term material or social success or even short-term emotional gratification in order to prepare for the future. If you have this cultural perspective, you value persistence, perseverance, saving and being able to adapt.

Short-term orientation is when you are focused on the present or past and consider them more important than the future. If you have a short-term orientation, you value tradition, the current social
hierarchy and fulfilling your social obligations. You care more about immediate gratification than long-term fulfillment.

You should note that the concepts of long-term orientation and short-term orientation address the different ways cultures view time and the importance of the past, present and the future. Cultures demonstrating a short-term orientation will be more concerned with the past and present and will focus their efforts and beliefs on matters related to the short-term, while
cultures demonstrating a long-term time orientation will be more concerned with the future and focus their efforts on future-orientated goals.

Why Is This Important?

Knowing about a person’s cultural time orientation – whether they’re short-term orientated or long-term orientated – is crucial information in management and in negotiations because it plays a large factor in motivation. Organizations and managers who know the time orientation
of their employees will be able to fashion appropriate motivating incentives that align with their orientations, such as a bonus – a short-term incentive – or an additional contribution to an employee’s retirement fund, which is a long-term orientated incentive. Cultural time orientation is also a crucial bit of information in cross-cultural negotiations, as illustrated in this example.

    Activities FAQs

Short-term vs Long-term Thought Questions

Research Project

Use the Internet to read about Hofstede’s work and find how various countries rank in his studies. Which three countries are the most short-term oriented? Which
three countries are the most long-term oriented? Are there similarities between the three short-term oriented countries? If so, what are those similarities? Are there similarities between the three long-term oriented countries? If so, what are they? Write a report that discusses Hofstede’s work and what you have just discovered.

Group Discussion

Form a group of several people (say 4 to 6) and have each person answer the following questions:

Are you generally focused in life on the short term or the long term? Regardless of which focus you have, how do you display this focus in how you live your life and make decisions? Why do you believe you have developed this type of focus for your life? Discussion Question

Hofstede’s work, although with IBM employees, focused on variations between country cultures. Do you think a company in a country will have the same
short-term or long-term focus the country has? For example, if UhOh Company is started in Old Xland and Old Xland has a short-term orientation, does UhOh Company have to have a culture that is also short-term oriented? Why or why not? If not, how could a company get its employees to change to a new orientation? Discuss this with some other people without providing your thoughts and see what answers they give you.

Example Answer: Honda has plants in Nhật bản and the US. Nhật bản is very
long-term oriented, so the employees work to build their future and the company’s future, ensuring their long-term financial needs are met. However, people working for Honda in the US are more focused on what can be earned today to take care of immediate needs. There is much less thought of the future, whether that future is for the person or for the company. It would be extremely difficult to get a Japanese worker to think short-term and difficult to get a US worker to think long-term because
of the culture in which they grew up.

Which country has a short-term orientation?

The United States has a short-term orientation according to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. This means that people in the United States are more
likely to be motivated by immediate results and quick innovation than by long-term planning or the development of strong relationships over time.

What countries have a long-term orientation?

There are many countries with a long-term orientation, but some examples include China and South Korea. This
means the cultures in these countries are more likely to place a higher value on future planning and the development of strong relationships than on immediate gratification.

What is long-term orientation?

Long-term orientation is a cultural dimension identified by Geert Hofstede. It refers to a
culture’s level of focus on the future or the present and past. Long-term orientation tends to be characterized by a focus on perseverance and delays in short-term gratification.

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Which of these defines the tendency for individuals to attribute?

Stereotyping is a tendency to assign attributes to people solely on the basis of their class or category.

What defines the tendency for individuals to attribute success on an sự kiện or project to their own actions while attributing failure to others?

Self-serving bias. The tendency for individuals to attribute success on an sự kiện or project to their own actions while attributing failure to others. Situational approach.

Which of the following is defined as the process of molding behavior through the reciprocal interaction of a person’s cognitions behavior and environment?

Social learning theory is defined as the process of molding behavior through the reciprocal interaction of a person’s cognitions, behavior, and environment.

Which of these best describes a process by which we systematically screen out or discredit information we don’t wish to hear and focus instead on more salient information?

Selective perception is the process by which we systematically screen out information we don’t wish to hear, focusing instead on more salient information.
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