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Presidential Reconstruction

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    What was the main difference between Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan and Radical Republicans?What is the difference between Lincoln’s Johnson and the Congressional Reconstruction plan?What is Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction?

In 1865 President Andrew Johnson implemented a plan of Reconstruction that gave the white South a không lấy phí hand in regulating the transition from slavery to freedom and offered no role to blacks in the politics of the South. The conduct of the governments he established turned many Northerners against the
president’s policies.

The end of the Civil War found the nation without a settled Reconstruction policy.

In May 1865, President Andrew Johnson offered a pardon to all white Southerners except Confederate leaders and wealthy planters (although most of these later received individual pardons), and authorized them to create new governments.

Read the Johnson’s Pardon of 1865

See the Pardon document

Blacks were denied any role in the process. Johnson also ordered nearly all the land in the hands of the government returned to
its prewar owners — dashing black hope for economic autonomy.

At the outset, most Northerners believed Johnson’s plan deserved a chance to succeed. The course followed by Southern state governments under Presidential Reconstruction, however, turned most of the North against Johnson’s policy. Members of the old Southern elite, including many who had served in the Confederate government and army, returned to power.

The new legislatures passed the Black Codes, severely limiting the former slaves’ legal rights and economic options so as to force them to return to the plantations as dependent laborers. Some states limited the occupations open to blacks. None allowed any blacks to vote, or provided public funds for their education.

Read the Mississippi Black Code (1865)

Read the Louisiana Black Code (1865)

The apparent inability of the South’s white leaders to accept the reality of emancipation undermined Northern
tư vấn for Johnson’s policies.

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As the Civil War came to a close, it became obvious that there would be some difficulty in rejoining the South to the North. Tensions were still high, damage had been inflicted
upon Southern lands, and the question of a national identity hung in the air. A plan for Reconstruction,the time period after the Civil War that was marked by a sense of rebuilding, was desperately needed.

Three different proposals were considered: President Lincoln’s, Vice President Andrew Johnson’s, and then the Radical Republican Plan. President Lincoln began formulating a reconstructive plan back in 1863, nearly two years before the Civil War ended. He first proposed
his 10% Plan that year, which stated that when it came to a Southern state that had seceded, if 10% of the people who voted in the 1860 election voted to re-enter the Union and accepted Emancipation, they could come back into the Union. He saw this as a loyalty oath, and was sure to promise that any Confederate would receive a pardon. High Confederate officials and military leaders, however, would be excluded from this process.

Wade-Davis Bill of 1864, written by Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis from Maryland. As part of this
proposal, least 50% of the eligible voting population would have to take an oath of loyalty to the Union. Each state would also be required to abolish slavery to be considered for readmittance, and the new state government would not be able to feature any Confederate officials in any seats.

Lincoln’s Vice President, Andrew Johnson, had a somewhat different plan in mind. Johnson became president immediately after Lincoln was assassinated, and therefore had to continue his predecessor’s plan of action. Although Johnson was in favor of pardoning anyone who took the loyalty oath to the Union, he was not in favor of pardoning any high officials or wealthy farmers owning property valued $20,000. What’s more, he wanted every state to
not only abolish slavery, but repeal secession before they could be readmitted into the Union. Some states did not follow these directives, such as Mississippi, but by December of 1865, President Johnson officially declared that the Union had been restored.

What was the main difference between Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan and Radical Republicans?

Radical Republicans wanted to punish the South for slavery and the war itself. Both Lincoln and Johnson wanted the southern states to be brought back into the Union quickly, using less punitive measures. The issues and results of Reconstruction had consequences for generations to come.

What is the difference between Lincoln’s Johnson and the Congressional Reconstruction plan?

The main difference between Lincoln’s plans for reconstruction and Johnson’s was in regard to the rights of freedmen following the conclusion of the Civil War. While Lincoln wanted to ensure rights, such as voting, for the formerly enslaved, Johnson’s plan did not have these same requirements.

What is Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction?

The Confederate states would be required to uphold the 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery; swear loyalty to the Union; and pay off their war debt. Then they could re-write their state constitutions, hold elections, and begin sending representatives to Washington.
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