Kinh Nghiệm Hướng dẫn What is reasoning from specific instances Why is it important to supplement reasoning from specific instances with testimony or statistics? Chi Tiết

Pro đang tìm kiếm từ khóa What is reasoning from specific instances Why is it important to supplement reasoning from specific instances with testimony or statistics? được Cập Nhật vào lúc : 2022-10-13 20:29:51 . Với phương châm chia sẻ Bí kíp Hướng dẫn trong nội dung bài viết một cách Chi Tiết Mới Nhất. Nếu sau khi đọc tài liệu vẫn ko hiểu thì hoàn toàn có thể lại phản hồi ở cuối bài để Admin lý giải và hướng dẫn lại nha.

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    What is reasoning specific instance?When reasoning from specific instances in a persuasive speech you need to make sure your sample?What is the most important part of a speaker’s credibility?Why do persuasive speakers need to use evidence and cite their sources?

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Download 1. T F What many teachers refer to as source credibility was called ethos by Aristotle….

Chapter 17 True-False Questions 1.

T F

What many teachers refer to as source credibility was called ethos by Aristotle.

2.

T F

Competence and character are the most important factors affecting a speaker’s credibility.

3.

T F

Education and status are the most important factors affecting a speaker’s credibility.

4.

T F

The more favorably listeners view a speaker’s competence and character, the more likely they are to accept what the speaker says.

5.

T F

Credibility is the audience’s perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.

6.

T F

The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak is called derived credibility.

7.

T F

The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak is called
initial credibility.

8.

T F

Derived credibility refers to the credibility of the speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech itself.

9.

T F

Terminal credibility is the credibility of the speaker the start of the speech.

10.

T F

Terminal credibility is the credibility of the speaker the end of the speech.

11.

T F

A speaker can have high credibility for one audience and low
credibility for another audience.

12.

T F

A speaker’s credibility can change during the course of her or his speech.

13.

T F

A speaker could begin a speech with high credibility but end the speech with low credibility.

14.

T F

A speaker’s credibility is affected by everything she or he says and does during the speech.

15.

T F

Speakers who explain their expertise on the speech topic are likely to reduce their
credibility with the audience.

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339

16.

T F

Establishing common ground with an audience is especially important in the conclusion of a persuasive speech.

17.

T F

Establishing common ground with an audience is especially important in the introduction of a persuasive speech.

18.

T F

Research shows that a speaker’s credibility is strongly affected by his or her delivery.

19.

T
F

Supporting materials that are used to prove or disprove something are called evidence.

20.

T F

Research has shown that speakers with high initial credibility need to use more evidence than speakers with low initial credibility.

21.

T F

Studies have shown that speakers with low initial credibility need to use more evidence than speakers with high initial credibility.

22.

T F

The two major elements of logos are evidence and
reasoning.

23.

T F

The two major elements of logos are evidence and emotional appeal.

24.

T F

One of the reasons to use evidence when speaking to persuade is that it can enhance your credibility.

25.

T F

One of the reasons to use evidence when speaking to persuade is that it can make your listeners more resistant to counterpersuasion.

26.

T F

Evidence is especially crucial when your target audience opposes your
point of view.

27.

T F

Persuasive speakers should imagine how their listeners might object to what they say and refute those objections with evidence.

28.

T F

Research indicates that evidence is usually more persuasive when it is stated in general rather than specific terms.

29.

T F

Research indicates that evidence is usually more persuasive when it is stated in specific rather than general terms.

30.

T F

Research shows that skeptical listeners are more likely to be persuaded by evidence they are already familiar with than by evidence that is new to them.

31.

T F

Research indicates that listeners are more likely to be persuaded by evidence that is new to them than by facts and figures they already know.

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340

32.

T F

Evidence from competent, credible sources is more persuasive than evidence from biased or
self-interested sources.

33.

T F

Evidence from biased or self-interested sources is more persuasive than evidence from impartial sources.

34.

T F

According to your textbook, it is redundant for persuasive speakers to give their evidence and then to state the point the evidence is meant to prove.

35.

T F

When you use evidence in a persuasive speech, you can count on listeners to figure out for themselves what you want the evidence to
prove.

36.

T F

Reasoning is the process of drawing a conclusion based on evidence.

37.

T F

When you reason from specific instances in a speech, you move from a general example to a specific conclusion.

38.

T F

Reasoning from specific instances involves progressing from a number of particular facts to a general conclusion.

39.

T F

When reasoning from specific instances in a persuasive speech, you need to make sure
your sample of specific instances is large enough to justify your conclusion.

40.

T F

When reasoning from specific instances in a persuasive speech, it is usually a good idea for a speaker to supplement the specific instances with testimony or statistics showing that the instances are typical.

41.

T F

A persuasive speaker who argues that capital punishment should be outlawed because it violates the constitutional principle banning cruel and unusual
punishment is reasoning from specific instances.

42.

T F

A persuasive speaker who contends that America’s older bridges are becoming unsafe because several bridges have collapsed in recent years is reasoning from specific instances.

43.

T F

When you reason from principle in a speech, you move from a specific principle to a general conclusion.

44.

T F

Reasoning from principle moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion.

45.

T F

Because it moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion, reasoning from principle is the opposite of reasoning from specific instances.

46.

T F

The following is an example of reasoning from principle: “Places such as Singapore that allow caning and other forms of corporal punishment have

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341

exceedingly low crime rates. If caning were used in the United States, the U.S. would have
lower crime rates as well.” 47.

T F

The following is an example of reasoning from principle: “All infringements on the right of không lấy phí expression are unconstitutional. Limitations on the lyrics of popular songs are infringements on the right of không lấy phí expression. Therefore, all limitations on the lyrics of popular songs are unconstitutional.”

48.

T F

When you use causal reasoning in a persuasive speech, you seek to establish the relationship between a general
principle and a specific conclusion.

49.

T F

Although causal reasoning is used a great giảm giá in public speeches, it is seldom used in other situations.

50.

T F

One of the advantages of using causal reasoning in a persuasive speech is that the relationship between causes and effects is usually fairly obvious.

51.

T F

An advantage of using causal reasoning in a persuasive speech is that events usually have only one cause.

52.

T F

When you use causal reasoning, you should avoid attributing complex events to a single causes.

53.

T F

Analogical reasoning applies a general principle to a specific instance.

54.

T F

The following statement is an example of reasoning from analogy: “If you can make great tacos, you can make great enchiladas.”

55.

T F

The following is an example of reasoning from analogy: “The United Nations charter establishes the right
of all people to live không lấy phí of political oppression. The government of North Korea subjects its people to political oppression. Therefore, the government of North Korea is violating the U.N. charter.”

56.

T F

An error in reasoning is called a syllogism.

57.

T F

Hasty generalization is a fallacy in reasoning from principle.

58.

T F

Hasty generalization occurs when a speaker draws a general conclusion on the basis of too few specific
instances or instances that are atypical.

59.

T F

False cause, or post hoc ergo propter hoc, is an error in reasoning in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one sự kiện follows another, the first sự kiện is the cause of the second.

60.

T F

False cause, or post hoc ergo propter hoc, is an error in reasoning in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because two things are similar in one respect, they are similar in all respects.

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17—METHODS OF PERSUASION

342

61.

T F

The most important question to ask when assessing analogical reasoning is whether the two cases being compared are essentially alike.

62.

T F

To say that analogical cases must be essentially alike means that they must be similar enough that what is true of one is also true of the other.

63.

T F

The bandwagon fallacy assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct,
or desirable.

64.

T F

The red herring fallacy refers to statements that introduce an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion.

65.

T F

The red herring fallacy is often known by its Latin name, post hoc, ergo propter hoc.

66.

T F

The red herring fallacy is often referred to as a false dilemma.

67.

T F

Arguments guilty of the ad hominem fallacy attack the person rather than dealing
with the real issue in dispute.

68.

T F

The either-or fallacy assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.

69.

T F

The either-or fallacy forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.

70.

T F

The slippery slope fallacy assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.

71.

T F

The fallacy
of appeal to tradition assumes that something old is automatically better than something new.

72.

T F

Appeal to tradition involves using examples or comparisons from history instead of from the present day.

73.

T F

The fallacy of appeal to novelty assumes that something new is automatically better than something old.

74.

T F

The fallacy of appeal to novelty compares two familiar things in a new or unusual way.

75.

T F

Aristotle used the term pathos for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeals.

76.

T F

According to your textbook, emotional appeals are usually inappropriate in persuasive speeches on questions of fact.

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343

77.

T F

According to your textbook, emotional appeals are often appropriate in persuasive speeches on questions of policy.

78.

T F

As your textbook
explains, emotion-laden language is the strongest source of emotional appeal in a persuasive speech.

79.

T F

As your textbook explains, it is unethical to use vivid, richly textured examples to generate emotional appeal in a persuasive speech on a question of policy.

80.

T F

According to your textbook, the strongest source of emotional appeal in a persuasive speech is the sincerity and conviction of the speaker.

81.

T F

An advantage
of using emotional appeal in a persuasive speech is that it frees you from using facts and logic.

82.

T F

Regardless of whether a persuasive speaker uses emotional appeal, he or she should always build the speech on a firm foundation of facts and logic.

Multiple-Choice Questions

(Students are to indicate the best answer for each question by circling the correct letter.)

1. What contemporary researchers term credibility, Aristotle termed

a. b. c.
d. e.

ethics. logos. ethos. pathos. credos.

2. According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a

persuasive speaker are a. b. c. d. e.

competence and character. prestige and charisma. character and reputation. popularity and intelligence. charisma and competence.

3. According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a

persuasive speaker are competence and a. b. c. d.

logic. charisma. character. pathos.

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344

e. status. 4. As explained in your textbook, the credibility of a speaker before he or she starts to

speak is called _________ credibility. a. b. c. d. e.

initial negative derived original terminal

5. According to your textbook, the credibility of a speaker the end of the speech is called

_________ credibility. a. b. c. d. e.

final derived concluding terminal
acquired

6. According to your textbook, the credibility of a speaker produced by everything the

speaker says or does during the speech itself is called a. b. c. d. e.

contrived credibility. derived credibility. demonstrated credibility. generated credibility. terminal credibility.

7. According to your textbook, when is it especially important for a persuasive speaker to

establish common ground with the audience? a. b. c. d. e.

when presenting a plan
the end of the speech when reasoning from specific instances the beginning of the speech when explaining visual aids

8. To create common ground with an audience in the introduction of a persuasive speech,

your textbook recommends that you a. b. c. d. e.

show the audience that you share their values. use statistics to show the extent of a problem. confront the audience for failing to do the right thing. all of the above. a and b only.

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PERSUASION

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9. Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your

credibility in a persuasive speech? a. b. c. d. e.

Explain your expertise on the speech topic. Deliver your speeches fluently and expressively. Establish common ground with your audience. all of the above a and c only

10. Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a way to enhance your

credibility in a persuasive speech? a. b. c. d. e.

Establish common ground with your audience. Avoid talking about your personal knowledge of the topic. Relate the topic to the audience in your introduction. all of the above a and b only

11. According to your textbook, research has shown that

a. speakers with low initial credibility do not need to use as much evidence as speakers with high initial credibility. b. the credibility of a speaker is determined above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s intelligence and
prestige. c. speakers can enhance their credibility by delivering their speeches fluently and expressively. d. personal appearance is the most important factor in determining a speaker’s derived credibility. e. a speaker can begin with low terminal credibility and develop high initial credibility as the speech proceeds. 12. Which of the following statements about speaker credibility is true?

a. A speaker’s credibility is based on her or his reputation rather than on what happens during a
speech. b. Credibility refers to the speaker’s true character and competence, not merely to the audience’s perception of the speaker. c. A speaker’s credibility is affected by almost every aspect of the speech except delivery. d. Although credibility is an important factor for professional speakers, it does not matter in classroom speeches. e. The same speaker can have high credibility for one audience and low credibility for another audience. 13. Which of the following statements about speaker
credibility is true?

a. A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s personal appearance.

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b. A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s competence and character. c. A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s manner of delivery. d. A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience
perceives the speaker’s personality and reputation. e. A speaker’s credibility is affected above all by how the audience perceives the speaker’s intelligence and prestige. 14. Efram’s audience was persuaded by his speech because they perceived him to be sincere,

trustworthy, and to have their best interests heart. Which factor of credibility influenced Efram’s audience? a. b. c. d. e.

dynamism charisma expertise character competence

15. A local landlord with a reputation
for failing to return security deposits the end of a

lease has been invited to present his viewpoint a meeting of the local tenants’ union. To everyone’s surprise, the landlord accepts the invitation despite the fact that he will be facing an audience with a decidedly negative view of his integrity. What factor will the landlord have to overcome if his speech is to have any chance of being persuasive? a. b. c. d. e.

low initial credibility low generated credibility low
introductory credibility low terminal credibility low derived credibility

16. Developer Martin Cray had low credibility when he began his speech to a neighborhood

group opposed to a new shopping center he hoped to build. During the speech, his credibility increased because his audience was impressed with his command of the facts and his willingness to work with the neighborhood on plans for the shopping center. According to your textbook, the credibility produced by everything
Martin said and did during the speech is called _________ credibility. a. b. c. d. e.

derived functional perceived variable ongoing

17. Audience members were unsure about the credibility of Jim Gilchrist, founder of the

Minuteman Project border patrol group, when he came to speak on campus. As he

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347

spoke, he built his credibility by using high-quality evidence and relating to the concerns of his audience. After the
speech, students agreed they would like to have him visit campus again for a roundtable discussion. According to your textbook, the credibility that Gilchrist produced by the end of his speech is called _________ credibility. a. b. c. d. e.

steady perceived developed ongoing terminal

18. Evidence and reasoning are the two major elements of persuasion that Aristotle called

a. b. c. d. e.

pathos. logos. credos. ethos. mythos.

19. Using evidence is especially
critical in a persuasive speech when your target audience

a. b. c. d. e.

is apathetic about your point of view. is neutral toward your point of view. supports your point of view. opposes your point of view. is not sure of your point of view.

20. According to your textbook, using evidence in a persuasive speech can

a. b. c. d. e.

increase the speaker’s credibility. inoculate listeners against counterpersuasion. compensate for fallacious reasoning. all of the
above. a and b only.

21. When giving a persuasive speech to an audience that opposes your point of view, it is

especially important that you use _________ to answer their objections to your views. a. b. c. d. e.

visual aids syllogisms credibility statements emotional appeals evidence

22. According to your textbook, it is especially important to use evidence in a persuasive

speech in order to a. reinforce your competence on the topic.

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OF PERSUASION

b. c. d. e.

348

establish common ground with your audience. answer listeners’ objections to your position. generate goodwill among your audience. reinforce your reasoning.

23. Studies have found that public speakers will usually be more persuasive when they

a. b. c. d. e.

use evidence that is already familiar to the audience. present evidence in specific rather than general terms. state evidence without drawing explicit conclusions from it.
avoid emotional appeals when seeking action from the audience. speak slightly slower than normal when delivering the speech.

24. As your textbook explains, studies have found that public speakers will usually be more

persuasive when they a. b. c. d. e.

use specific evidence. use evidence from credible sources. use evidence that is new to the audience. all of the above. a and b only.

25. As your textbook explains, when you use evidence in a persuasive speech, you
should

a. b. c. d. e.

use evidence from credible sources. tell the audience what the evidence proves. choose evidence that is familiar to the audience. all of the above. a and b only.

26. According to your textbook, all of the following are tips for using evidence in a

persuasive speech except a. b. c. d. e.

Present evidence in specific rather than general terms. Balance the amount of evidence used to tư vấn each main point. Support ideas with evidence that is
new to the audience. Make clear the point your evidence is supposed to prove. Rely on evidence from competent, credible sources.

27. As your textbook explains, reasoning is

a. b. c. d. e.

the use of vivid language to create emotional appeal. the process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence. the easiest way to establish common ground with your audience. the use of sources that are competent and credible. the least important aspect of persuasive speaking.

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28. According to your textbook, as a persuasive speaker, your two major concerns with

respect to reasoning are to a. b. c. d. e.

establish credibility and reason correctly. make sure your reasoning is clear and credible. avoid fallacies and tư vấn reasoning with testimony. adapt reasoning to both hostile and favorable listeners. make sure your reasoning is sound and convincing.

29. When reasoning from specific instances in
a persuasive speech, you should be careful to

a. b. c. d. e.

avoid the fallacy of post hoc, ergo propter hoc. use specific instances that are typical. state your conclusion before the specific instances that prove it. all of the above. b and c only.

30. According to your textbook, when you reason from specific instances in a persuasive

speech, you should a. b. c. d. e.

reinforce your argument with statistics and testimony. include least one extended example
among your specific instances. avoid drawing conclusions from too few instances. all of the above. a and c only.

31. According to your textbook, when reasoning from specific instances in a persuasive

speech, it is particularly important to a. b. c. d. e.

cite specific instances that are familiar to your audience. state the conclusion before the specific instances that tư vấn it. reinforce the specific instances with statistics and testimony. use a hypothetical example to
relate the specific instances to the audience. take care that the specific instances being compared are essentially alike.

32. According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

Last summer, a five-year-old boy in Seattle was killed by his brother when the two were playing with their father’s gun. Last month, four-year-old Dylan Jackson accidentally killed himself after finding a loaded gun a friend’s home during a birthday party. In Tampa,
Florida, a two-year-old shot himself in the chest with a pistol left in the family couch. Clearly, children in America are risk from gun accidents. a. b. c. d. e.

chain reasoning reasoning from principle deductive reasoning reasoning from specific instances analogical reasoning

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350

33. What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

In recent months, newspapers have carried reports of vicious dogs attacking people
in Los Angeles, St. Louis, Boston, and Orlando. These reports show that dog attacks are an increasingly serious problem nationwide. a. b. c. d. e.

analogical reasoning reasoning from principle journalistic reasoning reasoning from specific instances causal reasoning

34. What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

In recent years there have been a number of highly publicized cases of sexual harassment in business, government, and education. Thus we can conclude
that sexual harassment continues to be a problem for women in the workplace. a. b. c. d. e.

causal reasoning reasoning from principle reasoning from specific instances emotional reasoning analogical reasoning

35. What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

In the 1770s, the American colonists boycotted British tea and had a big impact on British trade. In 1993, manufacturers in Bangladesh released 150,000 child laborers as a result of threatened boycotts
against their products. More recently, Colgate has stopped animal testing for its personal care products in response to consumer boycotts. It is clear from these examples that boycotts have long been used as an instrument of social change. a. b. c. d. e.

circular reasoning analogical reasoning deductive reasoning reasoning from specific instances reasoning from principle

36. What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

The income of male accountants is 20
percent higher than the income of female accountants. There is a similar difference between the income of male and female lawyers. Even among doctors, we find an income gap of 20 percent or more within most medical specialties. It is clear that in many professions women continue to earn less than men. a. b. c. d.

reasoning from gender reasoning from comparison reasoning from specific instances reasoning from general cases

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351

e.
reasoning from principle 37. According to your textbook, when you reason in a persuasive speech from a general

principle to a specific conclusion, you are using a. b. c. d. e.

analogical reasoning. reasoning from principle. reasoning by generalization. reasoning from premises. universal reasoning.

38. As your textbook explains, when reasoning from principle in a persuasive speech, it is

particularly important that you a. b. c. d. e.

establish the credibility of
your causal premise. draw your conclusion from a large and representative sample. assess whether you need to tư vấn your general principle with evidence. make sure your general principle and minor premise are analogous. balance the time spent on your minor premise and causal premise.

39. What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

We should be taking every step we can to protect our health. Getting vaccinated against bacterial meningitis will help protect our
health. Therefore, each of us should get vaccinated against bacterial meningitis. a. b. c. d. e.

reasoning from cause reasoning from prudence reasoning from specific instances reasoning from principle reasoning from safety

40. In her speech on chewing tobacco, Catherine made the following argument:

To be effective, laws governing chewing tobacco sales to minors must be enforced and must have adequate penalties for people who violate the law. My proposal will significantly
increase both enforcement provisions and penalties for violators. Therefore, my plan will be effective. What kind of reasoning did Catherine use? a. b. c. d. e.

reasoning from principle reasoning from analogy reasoning from specific instances reasoning from expediency reasoning from need

41. What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

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352

Politicians who are guilty of corruption do not deserve to be reelected.
Last year our U.S. representative was proved to be corrupt by using chiến dịch donations for personal financial gain. Therefore, our U.S. representative does not deserve to be reelected. a. b. c. d. e.

reasoning from specific instances causal reasoning reasoning by generalization analogical reasoning reasoning from principle

42. According to your textbook, what error in reasoning should a speaker watch out for

when using causal reasoning in a persuasive speech? a. b. c. d.
e.

claiming a causal link between two events when they are merely coincidental assuming that events have only one cause when there may be multiple causes committing the post nobis fallacy of using inappropriate causal evidence all of the above a and b only

43. Which of the following does your textbook say about causal reasoning?

a. Causal reasoning should be used only in persuasive speeches on a question of policy. b. When using causal reasoning, you should be especially careful
to avoid the ad hominem fallacy. c. Causal reasoning should be supplemented with analogical reasoning. d. When using causal reasoning, you need to discuss the cause before the effect. e. Causal reasoning can be tricky because the relationship between causes and effects is not always clear. 44. According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

U.S. children raised in two-parent families with incomes below the poverty line have a greater incidence of
school absences, lower test scores, and less chance of finishing high school than do children raised in one-parent households with incomes least 10 percent above the poverty line. We can see, therefore, that it is the economic stability of the family, not its family structure, that determines a child’s ability to succeed in school. a. b. c. d. e.

chain reasoning causal reasoning deductive reasoning analogical reasoning practical reasoning

45. According to your textbook, what
kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

We do not have to look very far to find reasons for the explosion in the number of violent crimes committed by teenagers in the United States. Not only are guns readily available to teenagers, but today’s teenagers have grown up in a culture that glamorizes violence in television and films. The average child in the U.S. has seen more than 20,000 murders on

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television by the time
he or she turns eighteen. Is it any wonder that many of those children are now committing violent crimes themselves? a. b. c. d. e.

analogical reasoning reasoning from principle causal reasoning reasoning from deduction analytical reasoning

46. What kind of reasoning is exemplified in the following statement?

According to a study by the University of Michigan, married men in the United States earn an average of 31 percent more money than unmarried men. It seems clear, then,
that for many men being married is a major factor in financial success. a. b. c. d. e.

causal reasoning analogical reasoning reasoning from principle statistical reasoning deductive reasoning

47. When reasoning analogically, you infer that

a. b. c. d. e.

a causal relationship can be established between two or more events. what is true in one case will also be true in a similar case. a general principle is validated by a question of fact. your position is true because
it is demonstrated by statistical trends. a specific conclusion is true because it is verified by a general principle.

48. According to your textbook, the most important question to ask when assessing

analogical reasoning in a persuasive speech is a. b. c. d. e.

whether there are enough analogies to tư vấn the general conclusion. whether the analogical principle is supported by the major premise. whether the analogy avoids the fallacy of post hoc, ergo propter hoc. whether
the two cases being compared are essentially alike. whether the analogy assumes that complex events have only a single cause.

49. What kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?

The Amber Alert system has already proved effective in the states where it has been adopted. Because it has helped return kidnapped children to their parents in those states, we can be confident that it will produce similar results once it is passed into law in our state. a. b. c. d.

legal
reasoning comparative reasoning functional reasoning practical reasoning

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354

e. analogical reasoning 50. The following statement is an example of reasoning from _________

This program was implemented in Philadelphia two years ago and has provided housing for more than 2,000 people little cost to the city. If it can work there, it can work here, too. a. b. c. d. e.

cause. validity. principle. analogy. maxim.

51. What
kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

Colorizing old movies such as Citizen Kane is like repainting the Mona Lisa. a. b. c. d. e.

analogical artistic reasoning from principle reasoning from specific instances causal

52. What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

Requiring students to sign an honor code has reduced the incidences of cheating George Mason University. If we adopt such a code our school, it will help us reduce the
amount of cheating as well. a. b. c. d. e.

chain reasoning deductive reasoning dependent reasoning practical reasoning analogical reasoning

53. According to your textbook, what kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

Five years ago, we came together as a community by voting to build a new elementary school. Today we are asking you to come together again, this time to build a new recreational facility. If we did it before, we can do it again. a. b. c. d. e.

positive reasoning analogical reasoning chronological reasoning functional reasoning dialogical reasoning

54. What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?

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Local control of the school system is the most effective way to educate our children. Therefore, local control of the health care system is the most effective way to maintain the health of our citizens. a. b. c. d. e.

analogical reasoning practical
reasoning specific reasoning factual reasoning dependent reasoning

55. What kind of reasoning is used in the following passage?

In Germany, female employees can take up to 18 weeks of maternity leave with full pay. If such a plan can work in a prosperous nation such as Germany, surely it can work throughout the United States. a. b. c. d. e.

generalization causal analogical specific descriptive

56. In her speech arguing for the elimination of pennies from the U.S.
money supply,

Susan demonstrated that her plan will work by showing that a similar plan worked when the U.S. eliminated the half penny in 1857. What kind of reasoning did Susan use in her argument? a. b. c. d. e.

causal reasoning analogical reasoning deductive reasoning comparative reasoning classical reasoning

57. According to your textbook, a fallacy is

a. b. c. d. e.

a kind of appeal to emotion. an inductive argument. another name for a syllogism. a strong
argument. an error in reasoning.

58. What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?

My Volkswagen constantly needs repairs, and so does my roommate’s Toyota. We can see, then, that foreign cars are unreliable. a. invalid analogy b. hasty generalization c. circular thinking

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d. false cause e. faulty deduction 59. When reasoning from specific instances, a persuasive speaker should be especially

careful to avoid the fallacy of a. b. c. d. e.

false cause. appeal to tradition. hasty generalization. appeal to ignorance. false example.

60. The fallacy of hasty generalization occurs when a speaker

a. b. c. d. e.

compares specific instances that are not essentially similar. jumps to a conclusion on the basis of too few instances. generalizes on the basis of atypical cases. all of the above. b and c only.

61. What error in reasoning is exemplified by the
following statement?

French movies are all dull. I saw three of them last semester in my film class and couldn’t stay awake through a single one. a. b. c. d. e.

false cause faulty deduction invalid analogy hasty generalization circular thinking

62. What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?

Both of my roommates drink least three cans of soda every day and neither of them is overweight, so all those studies that link soda consumption to
obesity must be wrong. a. b. c. d. e.

circular reasoning hasty generalization invalid analogy false cause bandwagon

63. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc, meaning “after this, therefore because of this,” is a fallacy

associated with _________ reasoning. a. parallel b. deductive c. comparative

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d. descriptive e. causal 64. When committing the fallacy of false cause, a speaker assumes

a. b. c. d. e.

that a single
sự kiện has multiple causes. that when one thing follows another, the first is the cause of the second. that an audience is familiar with the causes of an sự kiện. all of the above. a and c only.

65. What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following statement?

I always wear my blue sweater when I take an exam, but I couldn’t find it yesterday. If I had worn it yesterday, I would not have flunked my accounting exam. a. b. c. d. e.

circular thinking hasty generalization
invalid analogy false cause faulty deduction

66. What error in reasoning is exemplified by the following passage?

trang chủ sales were 30 percent higher in the summer of 2011, when temperatures averaged 95 degrees, than they were in the summer of 2010, when the average temperature was only 83 degrees. Clearly, then, hot temperatures make people more inclined to buy a house. a. b. c. d. e.

invalid analogy circular thinking hasty generalization false cause faulty deduction

67. According to your textbook, what error in reasoning is exemplified in the following

statement? How can we reduce our dependence on foreign oil? The answer is simple—just get rid of our cars. In Chile, there is only 1 car for every 100 people, compared to almost 8 cars per 100 people in the United States. If Chile can do it, then we can too. a. b. c. d. e.

bandwagon appeal to geography invalid analogy appeal to tradition faulty deduction

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68. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? In high school I didn’t have to study all and I earned good grades in all my classes, so I’m sure I don’t need to study to do well in my college classes. a. b. c. d. e.

either-or red herring invalid analogy hasty deduction false cause

69. The bandwagon fallacy

a. assumes that taking a first step will inevitably lead to other steps that cannot be prevented.
b. introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion. c. assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable. d. forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist. e. assumes that because two things are related in time, they are causally linked. 70. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? The United States is one of only four
countries in the world with a minimum legal drinking age of 21. Clearly, then, we should change our drinking age. a. b. c. d. e.

slippery slope appeal to sympathy appeal to novelty red herring bandwagon

71. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? There can’t be anything wrong with cheating on exams if 75 percent of college students do it. a. b. c. d. e.

red herring bandwagon slippery slope invalid syllogism appeal to
novelty

72. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy?

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Every presidential administration in recent memory has engaged in questionable fundraising activities, so I don’t see any reason why it is wrong for the current administration to do so. a. b. c. d. e.

red herring bandwagon slippery slope invalid syllogism hasty generalization

73. According to your textbook,
the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Instituting a national sales tax must be a bad idea. Polls show that 66 percent of Americans oppose it. a. b. c. d. e.

invalid syllogism appeal to statistics red herring bandwagon slippery slope

74. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? The best-tasting cola is obviously Coke. More people buy Coke than any other brand. a. b. c. d. e.

bandwagon
appeal to loyalty invalid syllogism appeal to tradition either-or

75. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? The mayor was re-elected with a large majority and continues to have high popularity in the polls. Clearly, then, he has the correct policy on police-community relations. a. b. c. d. e.

bandwagon invalid analogy hasty generalization ad hominem false cause

76. According to your textbook, the following statement
is an example of what type of

fallacy?

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Almost every state in the U.S. has laws permitting citizens to carry concealed weapons. The popularity of these laws shows that allowing people to carry concealed weapons is good public policy. a. b. c. d. e.

false cause red herring invalid analogy slippery slope bandwagon

77. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy?
Everyone runs red lights when they’re in a hurry, so there’s no reason I shouldn’t do it, too. a. b. c. d. e.

slippery slope hasty generalization false cause either-or bandwagon

78. A red herring fallacy

a. b. c. d.

assumes that because two things are related in time, they are causally linked. introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion. assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist. e. assumes that taking a first step will inevitably lead to other steps that cannot be prevented. 79. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Of course I have a plan to reduce our dependency on foreign oil. But how can we worry about foreign oil when millions of Americans are out of work? a. b. c. d. e.

either-or red herring appeal to
tradition hasty generalization ad hominem

80. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy?

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How can we be so concerned about shielding children in the U.S. from Internet pornography when millions of children around the world continue to be sold into slavery every year? a. b. c. d. e.

either-or red herring false deduction ad hominem invalid generalization

81.
According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Why should we worry about endangered animal species when thousands of people are killed in automobile accidents each year? a. b. c. d. e.

either-or red herring false deduction hasty generalization ad hominem

82. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Why should we be concerned about Siberian tigers becoming extinct when there
are more and more homeless people who need our tư vấn? a. b. c. d. e.

red herring ad hominem hasty generalization slippery slope either-or

83. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? We are spending too much time talking about regulating the cable TV industry while other countries are beating us in technological development. a. b. c. d. e.

slippery slope bandwagon either-or red herring invalid analogy

84. The
ad hominem fallacy

a. attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute. b. assumes that complex events have only a single cause.

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c. assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore correct. d. all of the above. e. b and c only. 85. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? The mayor’s plan to turn the rundown section of the city into a park will
never work. Don’t forget that she was involved in a scandal last year. a. b. c. d. e.

false deduction circular appeal appeal to novelty either-or ad hominem

86. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Councilman Stewart’s recommendations for a wind farm might work, but do you want to take advice from a man who was caught cheating on his wife? a. b. c. d. e.

hasty generalization post hoc, ergo propter hoc either-or
appeal to novelty ad hominem

87. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Of course, Senator Davis opposes serious tax reform. Before going into politics, he was a corporate lawyer who defended several companies that have since been implicated in unethical financial dealings. a. b. c. d. e.

bandwagon slippery slope hasty generalization invalid analogy ad hominem

88. According to your textbook, the following statement
is an example of what type of

fallacy? People who say Barbie dolls are bad for girls’ self-esteem are a bunch of liberal dogooders who don’t want anybody to have fun. a. ad hominem b. hasty generalization

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c. appeal to novelty d. post hoc, ergo propter hoc e. either-or 89. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Representative Thompson’s school proposal may be first rate, but
don’t forget that he never attended college himself. a. b. c. d. e.

bandwagon ad hominem hasty generalization post hoc, ergo propter hoc either-or

90. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Hannah makes a good argument in favor of providing economic benefits for same-sex couples, but what else would you expect from someone who is openly gay? a. b. c. d. e.

invalid analogy post hoc, ergo propter hoc hasty
generalization ad hominem either-or

91. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? People who oppose the governor’s new welfare program are all a bunch of selfish rich people who don’t have any concern for those less fortunate than themselves. a. b. c. d. e.

bandwagon invalid analogy hasty generalization ad hominem false cause

92. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? What does the mayor know about cutting down on crime? After all, he was accused of shoplifting when he was in college. a. post hoc, ergo propter hoc b. appeal to novelty c. bandwagon

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d. ad hominem e. hasty generalization 93. As your textbook explains, the either-or fallacy is often referred to as a(n)

a. b. c. d. e.

red herring. invalid analogy. hasty generalization. faulty deduction. false dilemma.

94. An
either-or fallacy

a. b. c. d.

assumes that because two things are related in time, they are causally linked. attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute. introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion. forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist. e. assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable. 95. According to your textbook, the
following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? We have only two choices. We can either adopt a year-round school system or raise a nation of second-rate intellects. a. b. c. d. e.

appeal to novelty invalid analogy circular generalization erroneous principle either-or

96. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? There are only two alternatives. Either we fully tư vấn the government’s counterterrorism
measures or we become traitors who give comfort to our enemies. a. b. c. d. e.

false cause invalid analogy hasty generalization erroneous principle either-or

97. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? You can either double the size of the police department or let criminals roam the streets.

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circular deduction erroneous principle either-or false
cause invalid analogy

98. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Either we all sign organ donor cards or medical facilities will start cloning people just to sell their body toàn thân parts. a. b. c. d. e.

either-or invalid analogy hasty deduction false principle erroneous principle

99. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? We have only two choices. Either we tax junk
food or we let our children be obese. a. b. c. d. e.

false cause appeal to tradition circular deduction appeal to novelty either-or

100. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? We must either tư vấn the governor’s plan to reduce spending on education or we will never be able to balance the state budget. a. b. c. d. e.

either-or faulty comparison circular deduction invalid analogy bandwagon

101. A slippery
slope fallacy

a. assumes that taking a first step will inevitably lead to other steps that cannot be prevented. b. introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion. c. assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable. d. forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.

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e. assumes that because two things are related in
time, they are causally linked. 102. According to your textbook, how can you avoid the slippery slope fallacy if you think

that taking a first step will lead to disastrous consequences? a. b. c. d. e.

Supplement your argument with strong emotional appeal. Use vivid language when describing the consequences. Use evidence or reasoning to prove that the consequences will occur. all of the above a and b only

103. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example
of what type of

fallacy? If we encourage elementary school students to use computers in the classroom, they will spend less time reading books. As a result, they will fall way behind in developing reading, writing, and thinking skills. Pretty soon we will have a generation of illiterates on our hands. a. b. c. d. e.

invalid analogy bandwagon slippery slope red herring either-or

104. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Once you let the postal service stop our Saturday delivery, then it’s only a matter of time until there’s no mail delivery all. a. b. c. d. e.

invalid analogy bandwagon slippery slope red herring appeal to tradition

105. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? If we allow the government to restrict the sale of semiautomatic weapons, before we know it, there will be a ban on ownership of handguns and even hunting
rifles. And once our constitutional right to bear arms has been compromised, the right of không lấy phí speech will be the next to go. a. b. c. d.

either-or ad hominem slippery slope bandwagon

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e. invalid analogy 106. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Once society recognizes same-sex marriages, all traditional values will be destroyed. a. b. c. d. e.

bandwagon slippery
slope red herring appeal to novelty invalid analogy

107. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? If we give students vouchers to attend private schools, it won’t be long until the entire public school system is eliminated. a. b. c. d. e.

red herring appeal to tradition invalid analogy bandwagon slippery slope

108. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? If we
allow the government to tax junk food, then it’s only a matter of time before the government tells us what we’re allowed to eat. a. b. c. d. e.

appeal to novelty invalid analogy bandwagon slippery slope red herring

109. What fallacy is exemplified by the following statement?

If we approve a construction permit for this home, the next thing you know other people will want to build in our valley. Then they will pave new roads and put in gas stations and other businesses.
Before you know it, all of our beautiful land will be turned into a parking lot for a giant shopping mall. a. b. c. d. e.

red herring ad hominem bandwagon slippery slope either-or

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110. The fallacy of appeal to tradition

a. b. c. d. e.

assumes that something old is automatically better than something new. assumes that something old is automatically worse than something new. shows disrespect for traditional values in
reasoning from principle. makes comparisons with cases from history that aren’t essentially similar. assumes that because something is popular, it is also good, correct, or desirable.

111. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? There is no need to change our company’s manufacturing process. Our assembly line has worked for the past 80 years, and it will work just fine for the next 80 years. a. b. c. d. e.

slippery slope
invalid analogy appeal to tradition false example either-or

112. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? The same hiring process has been used by the federal government for the past 30 years. There’s no reason to change it now. a. b. c. d. e.

ad hominem invalid example appeal to novelty appeal to tradition false analogy

113. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? There’s nothing wrong with capital punishment. After all, it has been around for thousands of years. a. b. c. d. e.

appeal to tradition false cause appeal to example slippery slope appeal to novelty

114. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? The use of marijuana has been a federal crime for more than 70 years. It was a good policy 70 years ago, and it’s a good policy today.

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false cause slippery slope circular generalization appeal to tradition faulty example.

115. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Since the first Tournament of Roses trò chơi in 1916, the college bowl system has been a national institution. Changing it now is unthinkable. a. b. c. d. e.

red herring slippery slope invalid history hasty example appeal to tradition

116. According to
your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Our county doesn’t need touch-screen voting machines. If paper ballots were good enough for the founders of this country, then they’re good enough for us! a. b. c. d. e.

hasty example appeal to tradition invalid history slippery slope either-or

117. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? It doesn’t make sense to force small children to ride
in special car seats. Generations of children have ridden in cars without them, and they survived just fine. a. b. c. d. e.

false induction slippery slope hasty syllogism appeal to tradition invalid example

118. According to your textbook, the fallacy of appeal to novelty assumes

a. b. c. d. e.

that unfamiliar evidence will be most persuasive to listeners. that something new is automatically better than something old. that unusual examples should be used to startle
the audience. all of the above. a and b only.

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119. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? The current administration hasn’t solved the unemployment problem, but if you elect someone new, they’ll do things right. a. b. c. d. e.

bandwagon slippery slope appeal to novelty circular appeal appeal to tradition

120. According to your textbook, the following statement is an
example of what type of

fallacy? If you really want to lose weight, make sure you use the newest diet on the market. In weight-loss plans, as in technology, newer is always better. a. b. c. d. e.

circular example appeal to novelty bandwagon slippery slope hasty induction

121. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? The U.S. Constitution is a relic of the past. We should feel không lấy phí to change it whenever we want, because
new ideas will always serve us better than old principles. a. b. c. d. e.

appeal to tradition false induction slippery syllogism appeal to novelty hasty generalization

122. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? It is time to abolish the electoral college. Something new is bound to work better than something that has been around for more than 200 years. a. b. c. d. e.

false syllogism appeal to novelty bandwagon
invalid analogy hasty generalization

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123. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? Of course we should use the latest innovations in testing for high-school students. If the testing methods are new, they will definitely be better than older methods. a. b. c. d. e.

bandwagon appeal to novelty false syllogism appeal to tradition invalid analogy

124. According to your
textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of

fallacy? If you want the most reliable air conditioner, you always should buy the newest model. a. b. c. d. e.

red herring slippery slope hasty reasoning appeal to novelty bandwagon

125. Appeals to audience emotions such as fear, compassion, guilt, or pride are the kinds of

appeals that Aristotle referred to as a. b. c. d. e.

ethos. kairos. pathos. demos. logos.

126. According to your
textbook, which of the following statements is true?

a. b. c. d. e.

Emotional appeal is incompatible with ethical public speaking. A public speaker should not substitute emotional appeal for evidence and reasoning. Emotional appeal is usually inappropriate in a persuasive speech on a question of fact. all of the above b and c only

127. According to your textbook, emotional appeal is inappropriate in a persuasive speech on

a question of a. b. c. d. e.

fact.
ethics. practicality. policy. value.

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128. According to your textbook, emotional appeal is

a. b. c. d. e.

inappropriate in a persuasive speech on a question of policy. often necessary when a speaker is trying to move an audience to action. most effectively generated by using emotionally charged words. unethical unless the emotional appeal is combined with causal reasoning. seldom used by public speakers in tư vấn of
honorable causes.

129. As your textbook explains, emotional appeal is

a. b. c. d. e.

seldom used by public speakers in tư vấn of honorable causes. unethical unless it is combined with reasoning from principle. often necessary when a speaker is trying to move an audience to action. all of the above. a and b only.

130. As your textbook explains, when using emotional appeal in a persuasive speech, you

should a. b. c. d. e.

make sure it is appropriate to
your speech topic. use it in combination with evidence and reasoning. avoid it in persuasive speeches on questions of policy. all of the above. a and b only.

131. According to your textbook, when using emotional appeal in a persuasive speech, you

should a. b. c. d. e.

use as many emotionally charged words as you can. let emotional appeal grow naturally out of the speech content. restrict emotional appeals to the conclusion of the speech. all of the above. b and c only.

132. As your textbook explains, _________ are usually the most effective supporting

materials if you want to increase the emotional appeal of a persuasive speech. a. b. c. d. e.

statistics analogies research studies quotations examples

133. Which of the following is recommended in your textbook as a method for generating

emotional appeal in a persuasive speech? a. Use clear visual aids. b. Develop vivid examples.

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c. Speak with sincerity and conviction. d. all of the above e. b and c only 134. Which of the following is recommended by your textbook as a method for generating

emotional appeal in a persuasive speech? a. b. c. d. e.

Develop vivid examples. Increase the rate of your delivery. Substitute emotional appeals for evidence. Use more denotative language. Employ visual aids.

135. According to your textbook, the strongest source of emotional appeal in persuasive

speaking
is a. b. c. d. e.

the speaker’s integrity and prestige. true-to-life supporting material. dramatic, emotionally charged language. the speaker’s sincerity and conviction. vivid comparison and contrast.

136. What does your textbook advise regarding the ethical use of emotional appeals in a

persuasive speech? a. b. c. d. e.

Restrict emotional appeals to the conclusion of the speech. Use emotional appeals on topics that do not lend themselves to reasoning. Avoid emotional
appeals when speaking on a question of policy. Limit emotional appeals to speeches using Monroe’s motivated sequence. Use emotional appeals to supplement your evidence and reasoning.

137. In her persuasive speech, Kari wants to generate emotional appeal to help convince her

classmates to sign up as organ donors. According to your textbook, how can Kari create this emotional appeal? a. b. c. d. e.

use emotional language develop vivid examples speak with sincerity and
conviction all of the above b and c only

Short-Answer Questions 1. What modern scholars of persuasion refer to as credibility, Aristotle referred to as

_______________ .

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ethos 2. According to your textbook, the two most important factors affecting the credibility of a

persuasive speaker are _______________ and _______________ . competence character 3. _______________ credibility is the credibility of the speaker
before she or he begins

to speak. _______________ credibility is the credibility produced by everything the speaker says and does during the speech. _______________ credibility is the credibility of the speaker the end of the speech. Initial; Derived; Terminal 4. _______________ was the name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. Logos 5. _______________ was the name used by Aristotle for the emotional appeal of the

speaker. Pathos 6. When used in a persuasive
speech, supporting materials such as examples, statistics,

and testimony are referred to as _______________ . evidence 7. Your textbook presents four tips for using evidence in a persuasive speech. They are: a. b. c. d. Use specific evidence. Use novel evidence. Use evidence from credible sources. Make clear the point of your evidence. 8. _______________ is a process of drawing a conclusion based on evidence. Reasoning

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9. According
to your textbook, reasoning from _______________ moves from a

number of particular facts to a general conclusion. specific instances 10. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of reasoning from

_______________ . In Montana an infant’s underactive thyroid went undiagnosed for three months because of a medical laboratory testing error. In Louisiana a 26-year-old woman died because a medical laboratory inaccurately analyzed a mole that had been removed from
her neck as noncancerous. And in California a teacher lost his life to a rare form of pneumonia when a medical laboratory confused his test results with those of another person. We can see, then, that inaccurate medical lab tests are a problem throughout the United States. specific instances 11. According to your textbook, reasoning from _______________ moves from a general

principle to a specific conclusion. principle 12. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example
of reasoning from

_______________ . Taking a life is morally justified only if it is necessary to save the life of another person. Capital punishment is not necessary to save anyone’s life, because a sentence of life without parole can prevent convicted murderers from ever killing again. Therefore, capital punishment is not morally justified. principle 13. According to your textbook, _______________ reasoning seeks to establish the

relationship between causes and effects. causal
14. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of

_______________ reasoning: President John Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963. The Beatles hit the top of the charts for the first time less than a month later. Can there be any doubt that the Beatles’ rise to popularity was brought about partly by Kennedy’s death, which left a void in the hearts of America’s youth that was quickly filled by the dynamic singing group? causal 15. According to your textbook,
_______________ reasoning compares two similar cases

and suggests that what is true of the one case is also true of the other. analogical

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16. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of

_______________ reasoning: School administrators in Long Beach, California, report that school uniforms have reduced school crime by 36 percent, increased attendance by 22 percent, and decreased student suspensions by
32 percent. If such a policy works in Long Beach, it can work in our school district. analogical 17. According to your textbook, an error in reasoning is called a _______________ . fallacy 18. _______________ is the most common fallacy in reasoning from specific instances. Hasty generalization 19. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of the fallacy of

_______________ : My friends and I use our cell phones in the car all the time, and we’ve never had an
accident. I don’t believe cell phones cause accidents. hasty generalization 20. The fallacy of _______________ mistakenly assumes that because one sự kiện follows

another, the first is the cause of the second. false cause OR post hoc ergo propter hoc 21. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of the fallacy of

_______________ : Whenever the number of ice cream sales increase in a coastal area, so does the number of shark attacks. If we want to keep our
beaches safe, we have to close our ice cream stands. false cause OR post hoc ergo propter hoc 22. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of the fallacy of

_______________ : If you did well in history, you’ll do well in chemistry. invalid analogy 23. The _______________ fallacy mistakenly assumes that because something is

popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable. bandwagon

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24. According
to your textbook, the following statement is an example of the

_______________ fallacy: I think the governor has excellent ideas for prison reform. After all, polls show that 70 percent of the state supports his position. bandwagon 25. The _______________ fallacy introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from

the issue hand. red herring 26. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of the

_______________ fallacy: I don’t know why we are
wasting time debating chiến dịch finance reform when more and more international terrorists are focusing their attacks on the United States. red herring 27. _______________ is the fallacy of attacking the person rather than dealing with the

real issue in dispute. Ad hominem 28. The _______________ fallacy is sometimes referred to as a false dilemma. either-or 29. The _______________ fallacy forces listeners to choose between two alternatives

when more than two alternatives exist.
either-or OR false dilemma 30. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of the

_______________ fallacy: Our company has only two options—either to cut employee benefits or to lay off large numbers of workers. either-or 31. The ____________ fallacy assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent

steps that cannot be prevented. slippery slope 32. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of the

_______________ fallacy:
You will be sorry if you allow employees to take time off to aid sick family members. First they will want time off to help spouses and children. Then they will skip work to

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help parents and grandparents. Before you know it, they will be gone for nephews and cousins, and you won’t have anyone around to do their jobs. slippery slope 33. The fallacy of _______________ assumes that something old is automatically better

than something
new. appeal to tradition 34. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of the fallacy of

_______________ : I don’t care what you say—we can’t get rid of the penny. America has been using it for more than 200 years! appeal to tradition 35. The fallacy of _______________ assumes that something new is automatically better

than something old. appeal to novelty 36. According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of the fallacy of

_______________ : We should buy the new toothpaste I saw advertised. Because it’s new, it will definitely be better than ours. appeal to novelty 37. Your textbook discusses three methods of generating emotional appeal in a persuasive

speech. The three methods are: a. b. c. Use emotional language. Develop vivid examples. Speak with sincerity and conviction.

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Essay Questions 1. What role does the speaker’s credibility play in the
success or failure of a persuasive

speech? Identify and explain two specific steps a speaker can take to boost her or his credibility when speaking to persuade. 2. What are the two factors of speaker credibility discussed in your text? How does each

affect the success of a persuasive speech? 3. Identify and explain the three types of credibility discussed in your textbook. 4. Explain the following statement: “When you use evidence in a persuasive speech, you

should think of
yourself as engaged in a mental dialogue with the audience.” 5. Explain each of the following guidelines for using evidence in a persuasive speech.

a. Use specific evidence. b. Use novel evidence. c. Use evidence from credible sources. d. Make clear the point of your evidence. 6. What is reasoning from specific instances? Illustrate your answer with an example of

reasoning from specific instances. 7. What is the difference between reasoning from principle and reasoning from
specific

instances? Give an example of your own choosing of both kinds of reasoning. 8. What is causal reasoning? Illustrate your answer with an example of causal reasoning.

Explain two pitfalls speakers should avoid when using causal reasoning in their speeches. 9. What is analogical reasoning? How do you judge the validity of an analogy? 10. Why is analogical reasoning frequently used when a speaker is dealing with the

practicality issue in a persuasive speech on a
question of policy? 11. Define and give an example of each of the following fallacies:

a. hasty generalization b. false cause c. invalid analogy 12. Define and give an example of each of the following fallacies:

a. either-or

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b. bandwagon c. appeal to novelty 13. Define and give an example of three of the following fallacies:

a. ad hominem b. slippery slope c. red herring d. appeal to tradition 14. In what
circumstances is it ethical for public speakers to use emotional appeals when

speaking to persuade? Are there any kinds of persuasive speeches in which emotional appeals are inappropriate? Explain your answer. 15. Explain the following statement: “When persuasion is the end, passion also must be

engaged.”

What is reasoning specific instance?

Inductive Reasoning. Inductive reasoning is the process of reasoning from specifics to a general conclusion related to those specifics. You have a series of facts and/or observations.

When reasoning from specific instances in a persuasive speech you need to make sure your sample?

39. T F When reasoning from specific instances in a persuasive speech, you need to make sure your sample of specific instances is large enough to justify your conclusion.

What is the most important part of a speaker’s credibility?

A speaker’s perceived credibility is a combination of competence, trustworthiness, and caring/goodwill. Research has shown that caring/goodwill is probably the most important factor of credibility because audiences want to know that a speaker has their best interests heart.

Why do persuasive speakers need to use evidence and cite their sources?

Evidence is necessary to use in a speech because in a speech class we typically are not recognized as an expert on the subjects we speak about. Demonstrating we have taken the time to research our topic enhances our credibility as a speaker and adds to the persuasive appeal of our argument.
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