Kinh Nghiệm Hướng dẫn Disney movies tier list 2022 đà nẵng Chi Tiết

Bạn đang tìm kiếm từ khóa Disney movies tier list 2022 đà nẵng được Update vào lúc : 2022-01-16 10:07:35 . Với phương châm chia sẻ Thủ Thuật Hướng dẫn trong nội dung bài viết một cách Chi Tiết 2022. Nếu sau khi đọc nội dung bài viết vẫn ko hiểu thì hoàn toàn có thể lại phản hồi ở cuối bài để Admin lý giải và hướng dẫn lại nha.

The COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam is part of the ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2022 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of 31December2021, Vietnam has officially reported 1,731,257 laboratory confirmed cases, 1,355,286 recoveries, and 32,394 deaths, the 3rd highest in Southeast Asia after Indonesia, the Philippines; and the 26th highest in the world. Hồ Chí Minh City is the most-affected locale with 504,583 confirmed cases and 19,152 deaths, but the Vietnam Ministry of Health estimated that the real number of cases may be four to five times higher.[1][4][5]

Nội dung chính

    BackgroundEditEpidemiologyEditReinfection and recurrenceEditMedical responsesEditIsolation and quarantineEditTreatmentEditField hospitalEditDrug and vaccine developmentEditVaccination programmeEditGovernment responseEditAid and charityEditLabour and immigrationEditBreach of rulesEditXenophobiaEditUnemploymentEditStockpilingEditTransportation and tourismEditPharmaceuticalEditIn popular cultureEditInternational reactionsEditStatisticsEditReferencesEditFree contentEditVideo liên quan

On 31 December 2022, China announced the discovery of a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan. The news on a strange pneumonia in China had circulated on Vietnamese truyền thông as early as the beginning of January 2022.[6] The virus was first confirmed to have spread to Vietnam on 23 January 2022, when two Chinese people in Ho Chi Minh City tested positive for the virus.[7][8] Early cases were primarily imported until local transmission began to develop in February and March. Clusters of cases were later detected in Vĩnh Phúc,[9] Tp Hải Dương Province and three major cities of the country, with the first death on 31 July 2022.[10]

During 2022, the Vietnamese government’s efforts containing the spread of COVID-19 were mostly successful.[11] The country pursued a zero-COVID strategy, using contact tracing, mass testing, quarantining and lockdowns to aggressively suppress transmission of the virus. Vietnam suspended the entry of all foreigners from 22 March 2022 until 17 November 2022[12] to limit the spread of the virus.[13] The measure did not apply to diplomats, officials, foreign investors, experts, and skilled workers. In January 2022, the government announced a stricter quarantine policy to “protect the country” during 2022 Lunar New Year. Individuals entering Vietnam had to isolate for least 14 days if unvaccinated, and seven days if fully vaccinated with the procedure carried out government-funded quarantine facilities.[14] The specially-designated such as diplomats would be exempt.[15][16][17]

Starting in April 2022, Vietnam experienced its largest outbreak to date, with over 1.2 million infections recorded by November.[18] This led to two of its largest cities (Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi) and around a third of the country’s population coming under some form of lockdown by late July.[19] A shortage of the AstraZeneca vaccine on which the country continued to rely on as of August 2022,[20] a degree of complacency after successes in previous outbreaks, and infections originating from foreign workers were all considered to have contributed to the outbreak. In response, government-mandated quarantine for foreign arrivals and close contacts to confirmed cases was extended to 21 days, and accompanying safety measures also tightened up.[17]

Although the pandemic has heavily disrupted the country’s economy,[21] Vietnam’s GDP growth rate still remained one of the highest in the Asia-Pacific Region, 2.91% in 2022. In January 2022, it was projected that it may increase to 3.8% in 2022.[22][23][24]

Vaccinations commenced on 8 March 2022[25] with a total of 125,857,027 administered vaccination doses reported by 2 December 2022.[26] The Ministry of Health has approved the OxfordAstraZeneca vaccine, Sputnik V, the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine, the PfizerBioNTech vaccine, the Moderna vaccine, the Janssen vaccine and Abdala.[27] Vietnam also approved Covaxin from Bharat Biotech.[28][29] As of 26 November 2022, a total of 139,540,295 doses have arrived in Vietnam.[30]


New infectious diseases such as COVID-19 impose a serious threat to the health of the general public.[31] Although human coronaviruses (CoVs) had been previously known as major pathogens that caused respiratory illnesses,[32][33] a new strain of coronaviruses referred to as SARS-CoV caused an epidemic involving 29 countries between 2002 and 2004 which infected 8,098 people and caused 774 deaths.[33] Evidence showed that the virus may have originated from an animal coronavirus, and found its way into the human population.[33][34][35] Its outbreak also implies that animal coronaviruses could be a potential danger to humans.[33]

Although it is still unknown exactly where the outbreak first started, many early cases of COVID-19 have been attributed to people who have visited the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, located in Wuhan, Hubei, China.[36] The earliest known person with symptoms was later discovered to have fallen ill on 1December 2022, and that person did not have visible connections with the later wet market cluster.[37] However, an earlier case of infection could have occurred on 17 November.[38][39][40] China publicly reported the cluster on 31 December 2022.[41] The World Health Organization (WHO) issued its first report on the outbreak on 5 January 2022.[42] On 12 January 2022, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan, which was reported earlier.[43][44] On 20 January, the WHO and China both confirmed that human-to-human transmission had occurred.[45] On 30 January, the WHO declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), after mounting evidence that the novel coronavirus had spread to 18 countries and completion of investigation in Wuhan.[46]

Vietnam has a history of successfully managing pandemics: it was the second country after China to face the 200204 SARS epidemic and, after 63 cases and five deaths, it was the first country declared SARS-không lấy phí by the WHO. In the wake of the SARS epidemic, Vietnam increased investments in its public health infrastructure, developing a national public health emergency operations center and a national public health surveillance system, maintaining robust systems to collect and aggregate public data. Since 2022, hospitals are required to report notifiable diseases within 24 hours to a central database, ensuring that the Ministry of Health can track epidemiological developments across the country. In collaboration with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Vietnam implemented an innovative sự kiện-based surveillance program in 2022, empowering members of the public, including teachers, pharmacists, religious leaders, and even traditional medicine healers, to report public health events, in order to identify clusters of people who have similar symptoms that might suggest an outbreak is emerging.[11]

With a population of nearly 100 million people, receiving the millions of Chinese visitors each year, having long land border and strong economic ties with China,[47][48] which is the nation’s largest trading partner,[49][50] Vietnam was initially perceived to be hit hard by the pandemic. When Vietnam recorded its two first confirmed cases on 23 January 2022, it was among the first countries affected by COVID-19.[51] Two weeks later, only 150 cases had been reported outside of mainland China, but ten of these were in Vietnam, placing it in the top ten most affected countries. By early 2022, the situation was very different: instead of having a large scale outbreak, Vietnam was one of the countries with the lowest cases and mortality per million inhabitants.[52]


Coronavirus pandemic waves in Vietnam[53]WaveTimeNo. of casesDescriptionSumDomesticDeath

23 January 24 July 2022

The first cases discovered in Ho Chi Minh City were two people from Wuhan (China), the disease then spread in 13 other localities.

25 July 2022 27 January 2022

The epicenter was in Da Nang, the source of infection may be from Hospital C in the city.

28 January 26 April 2022

This outbreak started in Hai Duong from a person who was found positive after entering Nhật bản, and the true source of the infection is unknown. The epicenter was in Hai Duong, this local outbreak accounting for nearly 80% of the total number of cases.Numerous outbreaks were discovered in 63 localities, most unrelated to each other. This surge occurred due to the more transmissible Delta variant and the government’s weak response.[54][55][56]COVID-19 cases in Vietnam()
DeathsRecoveriesActive cases

Ministry of Health of Vietnam (Chart from Vietnam Ministry of Health)

First casesEdit

The first two confirmed cases in Vietnam, a Chinese man, born in 1954 and his son, were admitted to Cho Ray Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, on 22 January 2022. The son was believed to have contracted the virus from his father, who had earlier flown from Wuhan on 13 January, when they met in Nha Trang on 17 January.[8][57][58] The first cluster also appeared in Son Loi Commune, Bình Xuyên District, Vĩnh Phúc after a few workers returned from a training trip in Wuhan and infected other people in closecontact with them.[9] The Vietnamese government immediately locked down Bình Xuyên District until 4 March 2022 to prevent the disease from spreading all over the country, the first large-scale lockdown outside China.[59] Having known cases early is one of the main reasons why Vietnam was successful in fighting the virus. For the first 16 cases of the disease, the medical staff had to treat different types of patients, including infants, the elderly and people with underlying conditions. These preliminary cases were like “an exercise” for the Vietnamese medical system in order to prepare for and study the new virus.[60]

March 20202021: sporadic outbreaks and strict measuresEdit

When the pandemic spread across the globe, the coronavirus cases in the country also surged, and on the evening of 6 March, the Hanoi Department of Health confirmed the first case in the capital, a 26-year-old woman who had travelled to Europe. This is the 17th case in Vietnam.[61] On the afternoon of 20 March, the Ministry of Health announced 2 new COVID-19 patients, the 86th and 87th, who were two female nurses Bạch Mai Hospital with no history of contact with any COVID-19 patients.[62] In March and April 2022, the number of cases increased rapidly due to the large number of people coming from European countries and the appearance of clusters such as Bạch Mai Hospital, Ha Loi Commune in Hanoi and Buddha Bar in Ho Chi Minh City.[63][64][65]

After 21 March 2022, Vietnam suspended entry for all foreigners from midnight of 22 March, and introduced concentrated isolation for 14 days in all cases of entry for Vietnamese citizens.[66] From 1 April, Vietnam implemented a 15 days nationwide lockdown.[67] On the same day, former Prime Minister Nguyễn Xuân Phúc announced the nationwide outbreak of COVID-19.[68] The drastic epidemic control measures had positive results and the country did not confirm any cases of local transmission from mid-April to the end of July.[69] Vietnam began loosening restrictions in May, including resuming domestic travel across the country.[11]

Da Nang outbreakEdit

The country entered its second wave of infection when the Ministry of Health announced the 416th case in Da Nang, which was the first case with an unknown source of infection in 99 days.[70][71] On 28 July, the Da Nang authorities immediately locked down the city for 15 days.[72] Hundreds of cases across the country with epidemiological factors related to Da Nang were furthermore detected,[73] and the first death was also recorded on 31 July.[10][74][75] After two months, by using the same strategies that were used in the first outbreak, Vietnam successfully contained the disease for the second time and resumed almost all economic activities, including international commercial flights.[76][77] Sporadic community infections continued during November and December, causing public scare and heightened measures.[78][79]

Hai Duong outbreakEdit

The third wave of infection began on 28 January 2022, when Vietnam recorded an additional 84 community transmission cases within a single day in Tp Hải Dương and Quảng Ninh provinces. Most of these are related to a single Tp Hải Dương migrant worker, who was diagnosed with the UK coronavirus variant by Japanese authorities after arriving in Osaka on 17 January.[80] Initially, the government only quarantined the areas directly related to the infected people to limit the economic impact. But after half a month, the number of rising cases showed no sign of stopping. So, on 15 February, the entire province of Tp Hải Dương was locked down for 15 days, while Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City stopped all entertainment activities.[81][82] This was one of the most serious outbreaks due to the slow tracing process, mismanagement in quarantine facilities, and people beginning to ignore lockdown rules due to the long period of restrictions.[83][84] On 7 March 2022, the situation in northern provinces appears to have been largely brought under control when the number of new cases fell to single digits. Along with that, Vietnam started its mass COVID-19 vaccination chiến dịch the next day.[85][86]

From 3 September, 2022 to 15 May, 2022, the country recorded no new COVID-19 related deaths.

April 2021present: Severe outbreakEdit

Cases of COVID-19 outbreak in Ho Chi Minh City

From the end of April 2022, Vietnam experienced “a fast-spreading outbreak” of more than 700,000 cases. Clusters have been found in industrial parks in Bac Giang province and then in least ten major hospitals in the country.[87][88] As the epidemic has spread to many provinces in Vietnam, many outbreaks are occurring in many localities the same time, making it “nearly impossible” to trace and cut the chain of infection. According to WHO, to prepare for the worsening situation, the country has built more than 30 field hospitals with a scale of 1,500 ICU beds and 30,000 non-ICU beds. When total cases reached a few thousands per day, the Central government decided to lock down the entire Southern Region with 35 million people, along with the capital, Hanoi, to contain the spread.[89][90] On 26 July 2022, for the first time in the country’s disease prevention history, Ho Chi Minh City imposed a daily night curfew beginning 6:00 PM. As a result, no one is permitted to leave the city, and only emergency services are permitted to operate.[91][92] On 28 July, the National Assembly gave the central government in Hanoi mandate to implement emergency measures for curbing the pandemic locally.[93] On 20 August, Nguyễn Thành Phong was dismissed by the Politburo as chairman of the People’s Committee of Ho Chi Minh City.[94] The government also mobilized 10,000 troops to the city to enforce the lockdown and deliver food supplies.[95][96][97] One of the main reasons for this outbreak is a four-day holiday for Reunification Day and International Workers’ Day, which saw many vacation destinations packed with travelers.[98][99][100][101] In addition, gene sequencing results show that the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant is the dominant variant in this wave, especially among cases in central and southern localities of Vietnam.[102]

On 29 August, Vietnamese Prime Minister Pham Minh Chinh announced that Vietnam may face a protracted battle and cannot rely on indefinite closures and quarantines. He also acknowledged the possibility that Vietnam would have to live with the virus. This marks a major change in the country’s approach to COVID-19,[103][104][105] forced Vietnam to accelerate its vaccination chiến dịch to control the pandemic, instead of mass quarantine.[106] Starting from mid-September 2022, the number of infections began to decrease to several thousand per day and localities began to ease the restrictions.[107]

The newly acquired COVID-19 strain that entered Vietnam in the second wave has a mutation which increases the infection rates, leading to a high number of cases in a second wave. Nguyen Thanh Long, Minister of Health, said that this new strain was imported from outside of Vietnam. The epidemic may already have started in early July. Until August, Da Nang has gone through 4 cycles of infection.[108][109]

The basic reproduction number (R0) in the second wave was 5 to 6, while in April this was only from 1.8 to 2.2. The rate of positive results of people who had indirect contact with COVID-19 patients are also higher than in the previous wave. Scientists point out that this strain of the virus is aggressive and capable of causing a transition to a serious condition more quickly. The health ministry sent the best experts to Da Nang to help the city contain the spread of the infection and to quickly identify the source of the infection. They also submitted the new strain’s data to a world gene bank for comparison. On 4 August, the Ministry of Health confirmed that the strain of coronavirus in Vietnam in the second wave is D614G, also the dominant mutation wreaking havoc across the globe.[110] A study published by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico asserts that patients infected by that mutation actually have more virus in their bodies, making them more likely to spread it to others.[111][112][113]

As of 16 January 2022, Vietnam recorded least ten coronavirus strains: the original Wuhan variant, Alpha variant, B.1.222, B.1.619, Delta variant, Beta variant, A.23.1 from Rwanda, Epsilon variant, D614G coronavirus mutation and Omicron variant.[114][115][116][117]

Reinfection and recurrenceEdit

A Nha Trang CDC’s laboratorian taking COVID-19 sample in July 2022.

Many COVID-19 cases in Vietnam have reported positive tests after they were deemed to have recovered from the disease. This also happened in other countries such as the United States, South Korea and China. Oh Myoung-don, head of South Korea Central Clinical Committee for Emerging Disease Control rejected the possibility of “reinfection”, assuming that the patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 virus, most likely due to “the testing kit collected RNA from the dead virus fragments, these may remain in the body toàn thân for months”.[118][119]

Vietnam Deputy Minister of Health Nguyen Thanh Long also agreed with the above opinion, saying that maybe the patient has not fully recovered during the treatment process so the virus has not been eliminated and still exists in the body toàn thân, especially in lung mucous cells.[120]

In April 2022, the Ministry of Health decided to shorten isolation time home to 7 days because it did not record community infections from relapse cases. Previously, Vietnam forced concentrated quarantine from immigrants for 14 days in the isolation camp and 14 days home.[121] In July 2022, after considered of 400 relapse cases, the Ministry of Health has not recorded any cases of community spread. Therefore, they abolished quarantine rules for relapse cases and their neighborhood.[122][123]

Medical responsesEdit

In 2022, Vietnam was cited by global truyền thông as having one of the best-organized epidemic control programs in the world,[124][125][126] along the lines of other highlights such as Taiwan and South Korea.[127] This success has been attributed to several factors, including a well-developed public health system, a decisive central government, and a proactive containment strategy based on comprehensive testing, tracing, and quarantining.[11] Despite inferior economic and technological capacity, the country’s response to the outbreak has received widespread international acclaim for its immediacy, effectiveness and transparency,[128] in contrast to censorship in China[129] and the poor preparation in the United States and in European countries.[127][130][131][132]

Isolation and quarantineEdit

On 11 January 2022, after China reported the first coronavirus death, Vietnam implemented health checks airports.[133][134] All visitors had their body toàn thân temperatures measured, and those with a fever, cough, chest pain or breathing difficulties were isolated for testing. Confirmed cases, fellow passengers and crew and all their contacts were quarantined for 14 days.[135]

On 16 January, the government issued a diagnostic and management guidelines for COVID-19, providing instructions on contact tracing and 14-day isolation.[136] On 22 January, health authorities began monitoring body toàn thân temperatures border gates and started detection and contact tracing, with orders for the mandatory isolation of infected people and anyone they had come into contact with.[137]

One of the unique parts of Vietnam’s response is its meticulous contact-tracing effort.[47] Due to its inability to conduct mass testing like South Korea, Vietnam has taken a targeted approach to testing, scaling it up in areas with community transmission, implementing a strict 14-day quarantine policy, and keeping track of second, third and fourth levels of contact to infected persons, who then will be placed under different levels of movement and contact restrictions.[138][11] According to CNN, if authorities had not proactively sought out people with infection risks, the virus could have quietly spread in communities days before being detected.[47] For example, in early April, 45,000 people were ordered to quarantine for only 240 infected people. Whenever a small cluster of infections emerged, the entire village or city was sealed off from the outside world.[139][140] As of 9May2021, more than 16 million people have been placed under quarantine.[141] Instead of relying on medicine and technology, the Vietnamese state security apparatus has adopted an widespread of public surveillance system along with a public well-respected military force.[138][142] One-party national mechanism and powerful military-security forces helps the government to make decisions quickly and enact them promptly. Vietnam also has a strong surveillance culture with neighbours who will inform their local police if they suspect any misconduct. “This is not an approach that can be taken in Western societies.”[143] Experiences with pandemics have led to the longer-term development not only of institutional preparedness but also of “social memory,” which has been shown instrumental in nudging people to adopt protective behaviors and heed official regulations and guidance in other COVID-19 response contexts.[144]

On 30 January 2022, the Ministry of Science and Technology had a meeting with medical experts to propose solutions to contain and mitigate COVID-19.[145] In the meeting, Deputy Minister of Science and Technology Phạm Công Tạc urged virologists to accelerate the development of diagnostic tests.[146] Starting in early February, publicly funded institutions in Vietnam developed least four locally made COVID-19 tests that were validated by the Ministry of Defense and the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology. Subsequently, private companies including Viet A and Thai Duong offered capacity to manufacture the test kits. Most confirmation laboratories where these tests are analyzed use in-house versions of WHO protocol, allowing tests to be widely administered without long wait times.[11]

Early February 2022, a research team in Institute of Biotechnology and Food Technology (Hanoi University of Science and Technology) just announced they had successful developed test kits utilizing the RT-LAMP technology with testing time of 70 minutes.[147] On 3 March, leader of the research team Assoc. Prof. Dong Van Quyen, Deputy Director of the Institute of Biotechnology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, announced that they had completed the research and development of a SARS-CoV-2 detection kit, based on RT-PCR and realtime RT-PCR.

In August 2022, the Ministry of Health approved the use of GeneXpert, a type of test that has been used by the Vietnam tuberculosis prevention network since 2012, for COVID-19 testing. According to Nguyễn Viết Nhung, director of the National Lung Hospital in Hanoi, the test is similar to RT-PCR, gives accurate results within 3545 minutes for both COVID-19 and tuberculosis and could work automatically.[148] Plans are underway to further expand the use of GeneXpert using 14,000 GeneXpert COVID-19 cartridges in 42-46 lung hospitals around the country.[149] As of May 2022, Vietnam has 180 laboratories capable of testing for COVID-19 using RT-PCR with the maximum capacity of 238,000 test per day.[150] Health officials are currently preparing to extend testing capacity to more hospital laboratories including provincial and military hospitals, with further training ongoing, for preparedness in case of future widespread transmission.[151][152] During the outbreak in Tp Hải Dương, instead of mass testing on every person in the infected area, the authorities used different strategies including targeted testing of higher risk groups as well as random testing of households and inpatients. Testing capacity also can be increased with guidance issued on pooling of lower risk specimens, up to 10 specimens most.[153]


From the experiences gained from the SARS outbreak in 2003, Vietnam has been proactive in treating COVID-19 patients. Accordingly, the key method is to create a well-ventilated environment, do not use air conditioning and regularly disinfect. In addition, the treatment of clinical symptoms combined with physiotherapy and appropriate nutrition and psychological stability also greatly contributes.[154][155]

According to the Vietnam Ministry of Health, specific antiretroviral therapy will also be considered when sufficient evidence of effectiveness is available. To leave the hospital, patients need to have two consecutive negative samples of COVID-19 (both pharyngeal and pharyngeal fluid), taken least 24 hours/test. After leaving the hospital, the patient must continue to isolate home for another 14 days. The patient should be in a well-ventilated private room wearing mask, washing hand everyday, limiting contact with other family members and not to go out. Monitor body toàn thân temperature twice per day, check again immediately if fever or other abnormal signs.[156]

During the second wave in Da Nang, the treatment regimen used in Vietnam underwent many improvements. Compared to the beginning of 2022, patients mainly treated by their symptoms and medical staffs will try to improve their condition, while in the new regimen, antiviral drugs proved more effective for COVID-19 patients. Specifically, Lopinavir, Ritonavir and Interferon have been used effectively by Vietnam, with patients becoming virus không lấy phí after 7 days of use. The method of extracting plasma from cured people to treat severe cases is also being considered as an alternative to antiviral drugs. The malaria drugs Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine are no longer used for treatment.[157][158]

Doctors have been studying plasma therapy for COVID-19 treatment since April 2022 and the National Hospital of Tropical Diseases still continues to select plasma donors. However, no patient in the country has been treated with this method. Nguyen Trung Cap, deputy director of the Hanoi National Hospital for Tropical Diseases, explained that plasma therapy is based on the principle of using antibodies already in cured individuals to supporting the treatment of newly infected patient. Antibodies can help reduce the amount of virus in the body toàn thân of the sick person, thereby reducing the severity of the disease. Plasma can be very effective in treating many diseases, but with COVID-19 the benefits are still limited. During the first week of illness, the amount of virus in the patient’s body toàn thân is very high but most of them only experiencing mild symptoms. Therefore, it is not appropriate to administer plasma from the cured to the new patient. Severe symptoms usually occurs from the second week of illness due to an excessive immune response. However, in many patients the amount of virus in their body toàn thân has decreased, the use of plasma is not much value. In addition, shortly after the patient has recovered from COVID-19, the amount of antibodies in the plasma decreases quite rapidly, so the benefit of the blood plasma is reduced in the treatment of the disease. Plasma transfusion also has a mechanism similar to blood transfusion, this therapy may contain similar side effects like fluid overload, acute hemolytic transfusion reaction or allergic transfusion reaction when transfusing the wrong blood type.[159]

In October 2022, the scientists the Medical Genetics Institute, the Ho Chi Minh City Center for Disease Control (HCDC) and Ho Chi Minh City Medicine and Pharmacy University are planning to sequence the genomes of novel coronavirus to understand how it affects people with different genetic makeups and possibly identify genes sensitive to the virus for better treatment method. In the first stage of the research, twenty recovered patients would have their genes sequenced with the help of HCDC.[160]

With the appearance of the Delta variant and a rapid increase in the number of cases during the fourth epidemic, the Vietnamese Ministry of Health implemented a new COVID-19 treatment regimen in July 2022. According to the Ministry of Health’s assessment, more than 80% of patients only had a mild fever, cough, fatigue, and no pneumonia, and recovered about a week. In some cases, there are no clinical symptoms. Approximately 20% of patients experienced severe symptoms, and the average development time from initial symptoms to severe is 5-8 days. After severe stage 7-10 days, if there are no symptoms of respiratory failure, the patient’s clinical signs will gradually return to normal and recover from the disease. Under the new treatment regimen, all persons with no and mild symptoms will be treated in general ward. Severe and life-threatening conditions necessitate treatment in an intensive care unit. Because there are currently no effective specific antivirals or drug to cure COVID-19, individualized treatment plan should be provided, particularly in severe case. The Ministry of Health divides hospital discharge requirements into 3 levels with the shortest duration of treatment is 10 days. In particular, if two conditions are met, the patient is discharged on the tenth day after receiving a positive test. First, no clinical symptoms within ten days of testing. Second, two consecutive negative tests ( least 24 hours apart) by RT-PCR or low viral load (Ct 30). The time from taking the last sample to the time of discharge is no more than 24 hours. If the patient has symptoms, they will be discharged from the hospital on the 14th day or longer, depending on the severity of the ailment until they meet the discharge requirements.

The Ministry of Health has also altered how patients are monitored after they leave the hospital. Patients must measure their body toàn thân temperature twice a day home. If the temperature is higher than 38 degrees in two consecutive measures or if there are any abnormal clinical symptoms, it is necessary to notify the medical facility immediately.[122]

In August 2022, the Ministry of Health approved the use of antiviral drug Remdesivir for COVID-19 treatment and also considering to accept Favipiravir.[161]

Field hospitalEdit

Tien Son Sport Center before its conversion into COVID field hospital.

On 31 July 2022, the Da Nang Party Committee announced that they will use Tien Son Sport Center in Hải Châu District as a temporary field hospital to help the city’s hospitals cope with the rising number of COVID-19 patients in the area. The sport center covers a floor space of 10,000m2 (110,000sqft) with a maximum capacity of 2,000 beds.[162] In the meeting, the committee also agreed to use the sports ground of the Da Nang Military Command to store necessities and medical equipment to tư vấn the prevention and control of the epidemic.[163] Huynh Duc Tho, Chairman of Da Nang People’s Committee, stated that the situation of COVID-19 epidemic in the area was very dangerous and that drastic action and strong measures would be required to control the outbreak. The Party Committee tasked the city with urgently buying necessary medical equipment, including ECMO machines, ventilators, protective suits and medical masks.[164]

In January 2022, in response to COVID-19 outbreak in Tp Hải Dương, two field hospitals with a combined capacity of 600 beds have been set up in northern Tp Hải Dương province within 24 hours. The first one was built the medical centre of Chi Linh city, and staffed by 45 doctors and about 70 nurses who can provide treatment for 200 patients. The second one converted from the Tp Hải Dương Medical Technical University with 210 beds.[165]

In 2022, Viet Nam has around 2,000 ICU doctors and around 16,000 ICU beds. In Ho Chi Minh City: From 16 August 2022, the city established a 3-levels care pathway for people infected with COVID-19 with a plan of 60,000 beds, including 1,700 ICU beds.

    Level 1: Monitoring and care centres (centralized quarantine area and district hospitals) for asymptomatic and mild patients with a stable underlying condition. Level 1 currently has 18,120 asymptomatic and mild cases, being isolated and treated home, or 153 isolation facilities with a total of 23,898 beds.Level 2: for mild and moderate symptomatic patients. This level has 74 COVID-19 treatment hospitals with a total of 49,392 beds, including: 24 field hospitals (15 city-level hospitals and 8 district-level hospitals), 41 general and specialized hospitals in the city and 9 central hospitals.Level 3: for severe and critical cases with a total of 3,883 ICU beds. This level includes 8 hospitals in the city: Hospital of Tropical Diseases, Chợ Rẫy, Military Hospital 175 and five national ICU centers.

On 5 August, the Deputy Secretary of the City Party Committee reported that their capacity level 3 is approaching its limit. The city is facing a challenge on ensuring human resource for critical cases treatment. Due to the increase of new cases, on 3 August, HCMC Medical University has established a 70-bed ICU centre. On 7 August, medical staffs mobilized from three country’s major hospitals (Bạch Mai, Việt Đức and Central Huế) have established 3 ICU centres with a total of 1,500 ICU beds in the city. In total HCMC assigned 3,270 ICU beds for COVID-19 patients.[166] On 18 August, HCMC established Tân Bình District Field Hospital with the capacity of 1,000 beds, this is the first multi-level field hospital to accept both mild, moderate, and critical patients. The hospital’s construction is intended to relieve pressure on major hospitals, which are already overburdened due to the large number of COVID patients, and to reduce the time it takes doctors to transport patients from district-level to central-level hospitals.[167]

Bình Dương Province: In August 2022, Bình Dương has 22 treatment facilities with the total number of 15,627 beds and 2,851 medical staffs. The provincial government applied 3-level care pathway, first level has more than 6,000 mild or asymptomatic patients, the second level treats nearly 7,000 patients with moderate symptoms. The third treats 586 severe and critical patients, Bình Dương General Hospital and Bình Dương COVID-19 Emergency Resuscitation Field Hospital. The province is calling for additional tư vấn from Tp Hà Nội Thủ Đô Medical University and other private health sectors.[168]

Long An: The province also applied 3-level care pathway, with level 1 and level 2 consist of district hospital and level 3 consists of Long An General Hospital, Long An Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Hospital and Hậu Nghĩa Regional General Hospital. The MOH supported the province to establish a 500-bed ICU centre.

Đồng Nai: For COVID-19 patients, the province had 150 ICU beds and is building a 200-bed facility. The Hanoi-based National Lung Hospital helped Đồng Nai open a new 380-bed ICU centre. Additional human resources from the private health sector are being sought by the provincial government.[169][170][171]

Drug and vaccine developmentEdit

SARS-CoV-2 viruses under microscope. These are isolated from a patient in the U.S.

On 7 February 2022, the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Hanoi announced that it had successfully cultured and isolated the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in the lab, the fourth country to do so. The achievement would allow quicker test results for nCoV, meaning thousands of samples could be tested a day, said the institute.[172] It would also serve as a basis for the development of a vaccine against the virus. Le Quynh Mai, Deputy Director of National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, said the virus causing COVID-19 has evolved into many branches. Three branches have been recorded in the world. Vietnam recorded and isolated two different virus branches, one from patients returning from Wuhan in February and the other from patients returning from Europe in March.[173][174]

In May 2022, Vietnam declared that their COVID-19 vaccine was developed after scientists successfully generated the novel coronavirus antigen in the lab. The vaccine has been developed by collaborating scientists VABIOTECH in Hanoi and the Bristol University, it will be tested further in animals and evaluated for safety and effectiveness before a manufacturing process is embarked on. According to the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, it will take least 1218 months to develop vaccine that can work safely on human.[175][176] During the testing phase, researchers experimented by injecting the mice in many ways and administering multiple antigen doses, with some mice injected with one or two doses of 3-10 micrograms each. After 10 days, 50 mice were in good health and being closely monitored for immune responses. After gaining positive results with immune response and antibody production, the trial vaccine would be developed into a complete and stable version qualified to be used on humans. The research team would also develop commercial production procedures for mass-production, including up to tens of millions of units.[177][178] In October 2022, the Vabiotech COVID-19 vaccine has been tested on 12 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in an island off the northern Quang Ninh province.[179] The macaques are aged 35, weighing more than three kilograms each, and not infected with contagious diseases like tuberculosis or the HIV virus. Before being injected with the vaccine, they had their body toàn thân temperatures, blood and swab samples taken and were kept separately in cages. They will be tested in two periods. In each period, they will be divided into two groups, with one being vaccinated and the other not. After that, they will be monitored daily on separate islands, before their blood samples are taken for further analysis. The testing will follow a similar model that maybe later performed on humans. The animals will be injected two shots of the vaccine, 18 to 21 days apart. A month after the second shot, researchers will assess the monkeys’ immune response to see the difference between the injected group and the non-injected group.[180] The result of these trials will be presented before the health ministry’s ethical board within the following four months if experiments show the vaccine does produce effective immunogenicity and provide effective protection against COVID-19. It will be a foundation for the next stage for testing the vaccine on humans.[181][182]

Vietnam currently has four COVID-19 vaccines produced by Nanogen, Vabiotech, Polyvac and the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC) currently under research. The health ministry has assessed the Nanocovax vaccine produced by Nanogen is the most promising, having been successfully produced it on a laboratory scale and provoked immunogenicity during animal testing. IVAC and Vabiotech have completed their laboratory-scale production process and are evaluating the safety and immunity of their vaccines on animals.[183] On 7 December, the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology announced the Nanocovax test results on hamsters. The hamsters were vaccinated and then exposed to the novel coronavirus for 14 days. They were not infected and results from lung fluid tests also showed they were negative for the virus. Meanwhile, mice that were not vaccinated tested positive for the novel coronavirus and showed signs of fatigue.[184] On 17 December 2022, Nanogen commenced human trials of Nanocovax vaccine.[185][186] On 26 February 2022, the pharmaceutical company began second phase trials in two places, Hanoi and southern Long An province.[187] On 25 March, 26 volunteers receiving the first jabs in phase II between 26 February and 10 March were given the second shots of the Nanocovax vaccine. Some volunteers experienced side effects around the injection site, yet did not require medical intervention.[188] Results of the trial will be issued in May 2022 before preparing for the third-stage trial, giving the vaccine to between 10,000 and 30,000 people to test for efficacy and safety.[189] Nanocovax vaccine may be ready to deliver to the general public in the second half of 2022, if efficacy is shown.[190] If the government goes ahead with the emergency decision, it may be rolled out in May, a Nanogen official told Nikkei Asia.[189] On 26 March, Deputy Minister of Science and Technology Phạm Công Tạc and Deputy Prime Minister Vũ Đức Đam received the second dose of the Nanocovax COVID-19 vaccine.[191][192]

On 21 January, the second Vietnam-produced COVID-19 vaccine (COVIVAC), developed by the Institute of Vaccine and Medical Biologicals (IVAC), entered a human-clinical trial, nearly two months ahead of schedule. IVAC has made studies on the vaccine since May 2022, and carried out pre-clinical trials in India, the United States and Vietnam, with the results showing safety and efficacy in experiment, fully meeting the conditions for conducting research with humans participants. The vaccine stability evaluation was conducted Icahn School of Medicine Mount Sinai, Tp New York City.[193] On 15 March 2022, six volunteers were injected with the COVIVAC vaccine, the Tp Hà Nội Thủ Đô Medical University. The COVIVAC is a liquid vaccine with or without adjuvants, without preservatives, with the production technology of Newcastle vector vaccine, based on production technology on chicken eggs with embryos.[194]

On 8 September 2022, Deputy Minister of Health Tran Van Thuan met with France’s Xenothera company to discuss collaboration for the third phase of clinical trials of the XAV-19 COVID-19 treatment drug and the transfer of production technology to Vietnam. This drug is used to prevent the virus from developing, as well as to neutralize the virus and reduce inflammation in patients.[195]

Vaccination programmeEdit

Vaccination (as of 2 December 2022)Doses administered[26]125,857,027Total population [196]97,580,000At least one dosePer 100 peopleFully vaccinated72,632,85874.434
53,224,169Vietnam vaccinations (cumulative)

First dose Second and third dose

Vietnam vaccinations (per half-month)

First dose Second and third dose

The handover ceremony of COVID-19 vaccine for Vietnam from COVAX Facility in 2022.

Dose supplied by vaccine product, as of 26 November 2022[30]

Dose supplied by source, as of 26 November 2022[30]

Government procurement (49%)

Foreign government aid (12.3%)

Private enterprise (19.06%)

Following the approval of the OxfordAstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine on 30 January 2022, vaccinations commenced on 8 March 2022, and will continue throughout the year with the goal of vaccinating 80% of the population by June 2022.[197] Sputnik V was later approved for use on 23 March 2022.[198] The Sinopharm BIBP vaccine was approved for emergency use on 4 June 2022,[199] while the PfizerBioNTech, Moderna and Janssen vaccines were approved on 12 June 2022,[200] 29 June 2022,[201][202] and 15 July 2022,[203] respectively. Vietnam approved Abdala vaccine from Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology on 18 September 2022,[27] and Covaxin from Bharat Biotech on 10 November 2022.[28][29]

This is the country’s largest-ever immunization chiến dịch with over 150 million doses.[204] Although Vietnam is a success story in disease prevention and has kept outbreaks under control, the country’s COVID-19 vaccination program is considered to be slower than most countries in Asia.[205][206][207] As of 2 December 2022, Vietnam has administered 125,857,027 vaccine doses across the country.[26] As of 26 November 2022, a total of 139,540,295 doses have arrived in Vietnam.[30]

On 7 May 2022, Vietnam recorded the first death of a person vaccinated with the AstraZeneca vaccine, a female 35-year-old medical staff in An Giang Province.[208][209]

In July 2022, the Ministry of Health allowed mixing first and second doses of the Oxford-AstraZeneca and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines should there be limited vaccine supply and the vaccinated person agrees.[210] On 8 September 2022, Vietnam allowed those who received a first dose of Moderna’s vaccine to get a different shot when they get their second dose due to the lack of vaccine supply.[211][212] On 14 October 2022, the Ministry of Health authorized the use of COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 12 to 17.[213][214]

Government responseEdit

The report issued by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and Mekong Development Research Institute (MDRI), surveyed 1,335 Vietnamese in September 2022 for their opinions and experiences of the government’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Respondents showed strong tư vấn for the government’s national social distancing order imposed in April, with 88% praising its appropriate timing. A total 39% said they followed the social distancing order, while 12.2% either somewhat followed or disobeyed it. A total 89% of respondents said they supported the government’s stance and measures to save as many lives as possible, even if it means the economy might recover more slowly. The percentage is much higher than the global average of 67% agreeing the government should prioritize saving lives over economic recovery.[215]

A January 2022 survey conducted by Singapore’s United Overseas Bank, has found that Vietnamese are the most optimistic in Southeast Asia about their future despite the economic and social challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Around 81% of Vietnamese respondents said they expect life to go back to normal by the end of this year, while 72% believed they would be financially better. “Their optimism could be due to Vietnams success in handling the COVID-19 crisis, which has set a strong foundation for the recovery of the economy,” Harry Loh, CEO of UOB Vietnam said. Another reason why Vietnamese people are most optimistic in times of crisis may be because most of them grew up during the war and the Subsidy Economy period.[216]

Aid and charityEdit

Not only with the help of the government, many sponsors have provided food and water to the poor with many positive actions such as “rice ATMs” and không lấy phí supermarkets. This assistance has contributed greatly to helping the society most vulnerable.[217] A number of business people and famous people also contributed to the people and the government to tư vấn the fight against COVID-19 epidemic. At a meeting with representatives of the Vietnam Fatherland Front Committee of Ho Chi Minh City on the morning of 20 March, billionaire Johnathan Hanh Nguyen made a pledge to donate 30 billion VND, of which 25 billion VND was used to pay for medical equipment. In addition, he also handed over a 5000m2 supermarket for use as an isolation area.[218][219]

According to Deputy Chairman of the State Committee for Overseas Vietnamese Luong Thanh Nghi, as soon as the epidemic broke out in China and some countries in the Asia-Pacific region, the Vietnamese community was living, studying and working in Eastern Europe have donated and transported nearly 80,000 medical masks, hundreds of sterile water bottles, protective clothes and medical gloves to tư vấn Son Loi commune, Vĩnh Phúc province and a number of hospitals in Hanoi to prevent and fight epidemics.[220][221] In August 2022, Vietnamese largest corporation Vingroup handed 3,200 ventilators and enough chemicals to performing 100,000 RT-PCR tests to the Ministry of Health.[222][223]

At the end of May 2022, Vietnam’s Prime Minister Phạm Minh Chính is ordering government agencies and ministries to establish a COVID-19 vaccine fund to raise contributions from various sources, including cash and vaccine doses from benefactors.[224] The fund will be used for buying COVID-19 vaccines from abroad and for supporting the production of made-in-Vietnam vaccines. The Vietnamese government said it aims to secure 150 million vaccine doses in 2022 to cover 70% of its population a cost of US$1.1 billion but only US$630 million has been allocated to vaccine procurement in the budget. By 10 June, more than 253,000 businesses, banks and individuals pledged to contribute US$179 million to the chiến dịch.[225] Another US$140 million has been promised by businesses, the Ministry of Finance said.[226][227] There are reports that in Hanoi, the local government has forced people to pay money to contribute to the fund.[228]

Labour and immigrationEdit

Because Vietnam is a country with a huge number of people working in labour export market, many Vietnamese families depend on remittances from their abroad relatives. That figure is around $17 billion USD in 2022, but is expected to drop by 7.6% by 2022 – the first drop in an 11-year chain of growth, according to World Bank statistics, which comes from the fact that few workers leave the country than before the pandemic. According to the Overseas Labor Bureau, about 54,300 workers left Vietnam to work abroad in the first eleven months of 2022 – a sharp decline from 148,000 people in 2022. Phung Duc Tung – Director of the Mekong Development Research Institute, which specializes in labor and migration issues in Vietnam and other issues – said that the biggest challenge for overseas workers when they returned is losing their jobs and income in the country they are working in, due to lack of official information about the repatriation date and plan from their government. “This led to psychological problems, depression, pessimism, and there was a suicide case when he returned to Vietnam.” Tung said, referring to a Vietnamese driver who ended his life in the quarantine facility. He helped a group of undocumented Chinese citizens to enter for US$260 per passenger and he believed to be facing financial problems resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic.[229]

Strict government measures have left many citizens trapped abroad. To bring them home, since the end of April 2022, Hanoi has organized repatriation flights or charter flights, the flight which passengers have to pay high price for their tickets. According to government data, in the past eight months of 2022, about 65,000 Vietnamese people have been repatriated through 235 such flights. But while the initiative is well-intentioned, it may not be enough to satisfy demand from overseas Vietnamese. This led to many illegal attempts to go home despite facing criminal charges.[230] In some of the cases, illegal entrants tested positive for COVID-19 after living for a long time in the community.[231] The Vietnam Border Guard had detained more than 31,000 illegal entrants in 2022, including 25,000 from China, the rest are from Laos and Cambodia.[232][233]

Breach of rulesEdit

Although the authorities have put in place mandatory measures to prevent the spread of disease, there are some people still escaping the quarantined area or dishonest reporting about their symptoms, these actions caused serious consequences to the public.[234] In March 2022, the first patient in Hanoi (patient #17) did not provide an accurate travel history, which made it difficult for immigration officers to know she had travelled through and so that she could avoid concentrated quarantine. This lack of responsibility has caused many people to be infected, making hundreds of people in the neighborhood and a hospital placed under quarantine, putting stress on the city health system.[235]

Anger was also reported due to the increasing number of the infected cases coming from the Muslim community returning from Malaysia following their attendance of the Tablighi Jamaat festival in Sri Petaling mosque, and two to three patients did not obey the self-quarantine law in Vietnam and still attended Islamic events in Ho Chi Minh City, leading to fury and demands to imprison the Muslim population, even among Vietnamese celebrities.[236]

A 28-year-old Vietnam Airlines attendant known as patient 1342 breached self-isolation protocols when going outside and studying a university. He infected his friend, a 32-year-old English teacher, breaking Vietnam’s 88-day streak without community transmission. The teacher went on to infect least two others, his one-year-old nephew and a 28-year-old student. The attendant said he left home in Tân Bình District noon on 21 November to have dinner in Phú Nhuận District then visited HUTECH University in Bình Thạnh District. The university has since been locked down and its students were requested to stay home. According to the director of Ho Chi Minh City health department, patient 1342 not just violated the rules of self-quarantine home, but also of the Vietnam Airlines quarantine facility. He had intruded into the space of another flight crew and contracted the virus from another attendant who had been confirmed as patient 1325 on 26 November. Under the health ministry’s directions, the Vietnam Airlines quarantine facility was closed.[237][238] Ho Chi Minh City police has opened a criminal investigation into the Vietnam Airlines flight attendant’s breach of COVID-19 quarantine protocols. He has been suspended from his job and faces possible dismissal, while his company will be inspected for compliance with disease prevention regulations, quarantine processes and supervision quarantine facilities.[239]

On 24 February 2022, a group of 20 South Korean visitors arrived in Da Nang on a flight from Daegu which was South Korea’s COVID-19 epicentre.[240][241]

When being informed about the isolation for monitoring by local authorities, some people in the group refused. They were temporarily kept the Da Nang Lung Disease Hospital before boarding a flight sponsored by the Vietnamese government back to South Korea the following day.[242]

After receiving complaints from few South Korean about the quarantined area, YTN has broadcast a controversial news report that Korean citizens are being “detained” under poor conditions. Accordingly, the people who appeared in the video said that even without any symptoms of coronavirus, they were still “detained” in a locked room, and not provided with adequate meals. Notably, this news also criticised the small isolation room, containing 2-3 people.[242]

Immediately after broadcasting and posting the news video on YouTube, YTN received a backlash from Vietnamese netizens. Some people demanded the news agency to apologise for posting false information. Under pressure from netizens, on 2 March, on their official website, YTN News had to publish an apology about the incident. In the statement, YTN stressed that they would continue to tell the truth and protect South Korean citizens, but the same time be more careful with broadcasting style to avoid misunderstandings, especially regarding cultural differences.[242][240]

On 21 August 2022, under the excuse of the weak disease control by the government, a riot broke out in South Tân Uyên Industrial Park, 250 policemen of the Central Mobile Police Regiment were mobilized to suppress the riot.[243][244]

On 6 September 2022, a 28-year-old man was sentenced to five years in prison for breaching COVID-19 restriction rules and spreading the virus. He was also fined £630.[245]

On 3 March 2022, a warehouse containing nearly 1million masks of unknown origin were discovered after the inspection by the police in Tân Phú District, Ho Chi Minh City.[246] Many other cases involving masks of unknown origins, illegally produced, stored and traded have been detected, prevented and charged in time, such as in An Giang,[247] Lạng Sơn,[248] Cao Bằng,[249] and Quảng Ninh,[250] many other cases of production fake mask, illegal transportation of medical supplies abroad, also including collection and sale discarded masks or used masks to the public.[251][252][253]

On 17 April 2022, the meeting of the Steering Committee on COVID-19 Prevention and Control of Hanoi, Mr. Nguyen Duc Chung, Chairman of Hanoi People’s Committee said that the Investigation Police Department on Economic, Corruption Crimes and Smuggling (C03) of the Ministry of Public Security invited some officials of the Hanoi Center for Disease Control (HCDC) to the investigation about the purchase process of the COVID-19 testing machine.[254][255] On 22 April 2022, investigator determined that Mr. Nguyen Nhat Cam, director of the Hanoi CDC, and his accomplices had raised the purchase price for a COVID-19 test kit package using the real-time PCR system by three times.[256] Accordingly, the Investigation Police Department issued a decision to arrest him and six more people on charges of fraudulently buying COVID-19 testing machines. They were probed on charges of violating bidding regulations causing serious consequences, the mastermind of which has faced 10 years in prison.[257][258][259]


The Asia Times reported that “A number of Vietnamese hotels and guesthouses have reportedly hung signs on their doors saying that Chinese guests are not welcome, while many Vietnamese have gone trực tuyến to demand the closure of all border crossings with China.”[260] Signs suggesting that Chinese customers were not welcome were seen in front of a shop in Phú Quốc and a restaurant in Da Nang.[261] South Korean nationals are also reportedly screened due to the rampant outbreak of COVID-19 in South Korea, which has extensive trade relationship with Vietnam.[242][240] When racism started to get more coverage on social truyền thông and in the news, the Vietnamese government made a declaration that people could be fined for refusal of service to foreigners. They also provided a hotline for foreigners to call for assistance and to report the situation.[262]

The xenophobic attitudes also occurred in the use of Chinese vaccines in the vaccination program. Nguyen Phuong Linh, lead analyst of Control Risks consultancy firm, said China’s vaccine diplomacy had failed with Vietnam mainly because of anti-China sentiments. For successfully managing COVID-19, Vietnamese leaders have gained strong tư vấn from the public which they would not want to lose by using Chinese vaccines for the majority of the population. “From the beginning of the pandemic, the virus has been widely reported in Vietnam as originally coming from China. Since then, the anti-China sentiments, which were already strong, have shown no sign of weakening.”, she said.[263][264] But in June 2022, Vietnam approved the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine for emergency use and received a donation of 500,000 doses from China.[265] In late July 2022, Ho Chi Minh City received 5 million Sinopharm vaccine doses as part of a corporate donation, prompting public backlash.[266] However, Le Dong Hai Nguyen, an economist Georgetown School of Foreign Service, wrote in The Diplomat that the Chinese vaccine debacle might just be a publicity stunt, in which the Vietnamese government leveraged anti-Chinese sentiment to boost public acceptance for the AstraZeneca vaccine. “Just as standing next to a less attractive friend makes you look better, Vietnams strategy to briefly include the Chinese vaccines in its vaccine pool might just make the AstraZeneca vaccine look marginally more appealing.”, he said. According to him, many Vietnamese are willing to wait for the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines instead of taking the AstraZeneca vaccine out of concern for blood clots, which could “seriously derail Vietnams already sluggish vaccination chiến dịch” that depends mostly on the AstraZeneca vaccine.[20]

Vietnam economy growth rate forecast of some international organizations. In the worst scenario, the growth rate of the country is lower than the economic recession in 1986 after a failed monetary policy during Đổi Mới period.

Sources: Asian Development Bank (ADB)[267]


Like most of the world’s economy, Vietnam was hit hard by the outbreak because of the slowdown of private and national industries, the downturn of stock exchanges, and the lower number of incoming tourists, making hundreds of thousands people struggling to find jobs and are relying mostly on unemployment benefits to survive.[21] According to government figures, 3,000 businesses have closed in the first two months of 2022.[138] However, Vietnam’s economic growth is expected to be higher than the Asia average of 2.2%. Despite the deceleration in economic activity and the downside risks posed by the pandemic, Vietnam’s GDP growth rate is still to remain one of the highest in Asia-Pacific Region, according to Asian Development Bank report.[267][268][269] In November the IMF assessed that Vietnam was expected to be the only country in South East Asia that was expected to grow in 2022.[270]

Vietnam Industry Agency says industry manufacturing processing is in short supply of raw materials and components (mostly imported from Nhật bản, China, South Korea) leads to the risk of stopping many factory operation.[271] According to the survey conducted by the Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI) and the World Bank with the participation of nearly 10,200 enterprises (nearly 85% from domestic private, the rest are from FDI sector) about the impact of COVID-19. The survey results showed that the biggest difficulties for businesses during the pandemic are accessing customers, cash flow, labor and supply chain. At the announcement of the report on the morning of 12 March 2022, Mr. Dau Anh Tuan, Head of the VCCI Legal Department assessed that the pandemic in general had a very negative impact on Vietnam’s businesses.[272]

In total, 87.2% of enterprises participated in the survey said that they are negatively affected, 11% are not and only 2% recorded positive growth rates. Businesses that have been operating for less than 3 years, small and micro-enterprise are struggle the most. In terms of sectors, private enterprises in some industries have the highest rate of negative impacts are garment (97%), information and communication (96%), and electrical equipment manufacturing (94%). Some industries have lower rates of impact but still fluctuate around 80% such as real estate and mining. For the FDI sector, businesses in real estate, information and communication, agriculture and fishery have a large impact, over 95%.

In addition, to withstand the pandemic, 35% of private enterprises and 22% of FDI enterprises have had to lay off their employees. In which, 36% of small and micro private enterprises, 26% of medium-sized enterprises and 32% of large-scale enterprises implemented this measure.[273] The Vietnam General Statistics Office said export turnover reached US$99.36billion, down 1.7% year-on-year. Meanwhile, import value reached US$97.48billion, down 3%, Vietnam’s exports to the EU and ASEAN fell 12% and 13.4%[274]

The International Monetary Fund is projecting Vietnam’s economic growth 2.4% in 2022 a time when economies of most countries in the world are shrinking. Vietnam’s growth was “among the highest in the world, thanks to its decisive steps to contain the health and economic fallout from COVID-19”, IMF mission chief Era Dabla-Norris said. VCCI emphasized that COVID-19, besides the negative effects, it also offers Vietnam an opportunity to develop the economy when major partner countries such as Nhật bản, the US, the EU, Australia, etc., are looking for a place to transfer a part of their supply chain out of China. With a number of new-generation không lấy phí trade agreements such as CPTPP and EVFTA, those will help the country to diversify its economic and trade relations, also create favorable conditions for Vietnamese businesses and attract investment to the priority industries and sectors.[275]


In the second half of 2022, the nation’s economy was somewhat improved despite strict COVID-19 measures. But the new outbreak which occurred before the 2022 Lunar New Year broke this recovery.

Due to the fear of a COVID-19 outbreak in Tp Hải Dương and Quảng Ninh in January 2022, the VN-Index plummeted 6.67%, or 73.23 points, to 1,023 points Thursday, the worst single-session loss since the September 11 attacks. On the Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HoSE), on which the VN-Index is based, 478 of its tickers lost and only 20 gained. Out of these, a record 276 tickers hit their floor prices, the lowest they could go in a trading day. In addition, the VN30-Index for the stock market’s 30 largest caps sank 6.73%, with 29 stocks losing and one gaining. A total 28 stocks in this basket sank to their floor prices.[276]

According to Vietnam’s General Statistics Office, the number of employed workers in the first quarter of 2022 decreased by one million people, down to 49,9 million from 50,9 million in the previous quarter. The country still has 9,1 million workers aged 15 and over that were negatively affected by the pandemic. Of which more than half a million people lose their jobs, 2,8 million people took unpaid leave, 3,1 million workers had their working hours cut, and 6,5 million people reporting reduced incomes. Two-thirds of these people are between the ages of 24 and 54. Severe COVID-19 impacts have seen as many as 40,300 companies shut down in the first quarter, a year-on-year increase of 16%.

However, the pandemic has changed working habits, promoting the application of trực tuyến tools for workers to adapt to new normal conditions. At least 78,000 workers said they have turned to technological solutions in order to keep their jobs.[277]

The April 2022 outbreak in the southern provinces and subsequent disruption to supply chains is a setback for the country’s economy and the global supply chain. Lockdown measures made on-site work impossible, resulting in a drop in production capacity. Two major footwear suppliers for Adidas and Nike, Taiwan’s Pouchen and South Korea’s Changshin with 41,000 workers both ceased operations on 14 July 2022.[278] Six days later, another Taiwanese sports footwear manufacturer, Feng Tay, which accounting for one-sixth of Nikes annual sales also closed several of its factories.[279] According to the Vietnam Textile and Apparel Association (VITAS), more than a third of the country’s garment and textile factories have shuttered and the immunization rate among sector workers was still very low due to the delay in purchasing vaccine by the Vietnamese government. In August 2022, enterprises in the textile industry were still able to maintain good export capacity, but are set to face further declines in growth from the fourth quarter of 2022 onwards.[280]

Samsung, one of Vietnam’s largest employers, has had manufacturing issues with its smartphones when its injection molding equipment supplier went out of business. Near Ho Chi Minh City, the tech group’s appliance facilities are operating 50% capacity.[281] The outbreak has disrupted the plan to shift production from China to Vietnam of Apple, Google, Amazon and their main suppliers. Google’s Pixel 6 smartphone would still be manufactured in China, although Google had previously planned to move production of this device to northern Vietnam in early 2022. Apple’s plan to shift production of MacBook, AirPods and iPad to Vietnam was also postponed. In addition to Apple and Google, the production of smart doorbell, security camera and smart speaker for Amazon also faced delays since May when the virus broke out in some northern localities.[282] According to a Japanese chamber of commerce study, many Japanese businesses wanted to repatriate their staff out of Vietnam while Chico’s, a Florida-based women’s clothing brand, and Callaway Golf, a golf manufacturer, both announced that some of their production has been shifted to another countries.[283][284] In August 2022, Nikkei Asia ranked Vietnam last in terms of resilience after the pandemic.[285] The two-month lockdown in Ho Chi Minh City – which contributes to 20% of the total GDP of the country – pushed many businesses to the limit when almost all economic activities froze. Of the 21,000 businesses surveyed by the Private Economic Development Research Board and VnExpress, 70% of those have closed, largely because of supply chain disruptions. Concerns about the outbreak have caused tens of thousands of people to flee their workplaces, worsening the situation.[286] The prolonged closure could jeopardize Vietnam’s standing in the global supply chain.[287] According to the General Statistics Office, the gross domestic product (GDP) in the third quarter of 2022 decreased to negative 6.17% compared to the same period last year.[288]

At a forum to discuss economic recovery plans on 5 December 2022, Nguyen Thanh Phong, deputy head of the Central Economic Commission, said that in the past two years, if there were no COVID-19 pandemic, Vietnam’s economy would have grown by 7%. However, due to the impact of the pandemic, the economic growth rate only increased by 2.91% in 2022 and is expected to increase by 2.5% in 2022. Thus, COVID-19 has caused the Vietnamese economy to lose about 847,000 billion VND, equivalent to $37 billion USD.[289]


According to a report published by the General Statistics Office, as of December 2022, 32.1 million people nationwide have been affected by the pandemic. Of which, 69.2% of people suffer a decrease in their income, 39.9% have to reduce their working hours and about 14.0% have been laid off. The labour force in the service sector suffered heaviest losses with 71.6% affected, followed by industry and construction (64.7%) and agriculture, forestry and fishery (26.4%). The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs said the number of people filing for unemployment in May 2022 surged 44% year-on-year to 157,900.In the first five months 26,000 companies suspended their business. In the worst-case scenario, the number of workers affected by the pandemic could rise to 7.2million in the second quarter, the ministry estimated.[267] Generally, in 2022, Vietnam’s workforce decreased by 1.2 million people to 54.6 million. In the 20162019 period, the labor force increases by 0.8% per year on average. “If the workforce in 2022 maintained the same growth rate as in 20162019 period and not affected by the pandemic, there would be 1.6 million more workers in the economy. In other words, COVID-19 could have taken away the chance of these people participating in the labour market.”.[290]

The pandemic also changes the seasonal trend of the labour forces between quarters of the year. In 20162019 period, the number of labour forces in the first quarter was always the lowest, then increased gradually in the following quarters and reached the highest level in the fourth quarter. But in 2022, the number of labour started to decline in the first quarter, then continued to decline sharply and hit the bottom in the second quarter and gradually recovered in the third and fourth quarter. “Although the economy are recovering but the workforce in the fourth quarter has not yet reached its pre-pandemic state. The number of labour in fourth quarter was still lower than the first quarter approximately 200,000 people”, the General Statistics Office said.[291]


Stores across Vietnam were quickly sold out of surgical masks and hand sanitisers after the initial cases of COVID-19 were reported in January 2022, following a similar trend in many other Asian countries.[292] Interim Health Minister Vũ Đức Đam urged the public to remain calm during the outbreak and avoid excessive emergency shopping.[293] Vietnamese authorities also moved to arrest people who profiteered from the outbreak.[294]

Transportation and tourismEdit

Sources: Civil Aviation Authority of Vietnam (CAAV)[295]

Tourism is the most severely affected industry in Vietnam. The Civil Aviation Authority of Vietnam said the aviation industry is in the worst situation in the 60 years of its existence. Of the 234 Vietnam registered aircraft, more than 200 were grounded while airlines still have to spend hundreds of millions dollars to maintain operations such as: aircraft leasing costs, employee salaries, aircraft maintenance and apron parking fees.[296] Vietnam Airlines estimated that its 2022 revenues could decline by US$2.1billion.This has seen as many as 10,000 employees of the national flag carrier, over 50% of its staff strength, taking unpaid leave. Duong Tri Thanh, CEO of Vietnam Airlines, stressed that the carrier was going through the hardest time in its history.[297]

According to the General Statistics Office, in August 2022 only over 16,300 foreigners came to Vietnam, mostly experts coming to work. Since 25 July when the second wave arose, many localities have to closed tourist attractions and deployed measures to curb the spread of infections within the country. The absence of foreign travellers has dealt a severe blow to the tourism sector. The ancient imperial city of Huế which is popular with foreign visitors resembled a ghost town during the pandemic, with Thừa Thiên Huế province’s tourism department saying that 80% of hotels were closed, while 8,000 people had lost their jobs.[298] In Khánh Hòa Province, where Nha Trang is located, saw the number of tourists fall by over 80% to 1,25 million in 2022. As a result, hundreds of hotels are being sold for cheap in tourism hotspot Nha Trang. Authorities have said that the pandemic has caused major difficulties for more than 1,100 accommodation facilities. Around 100 have suspended operations so far, according to the provincial tourism department.[299]

Revenue from lodging and food & beverage services was US$22.1 billion, down 13%, while revenue from travel agencies’ services was US$776 million, a 59.5% drop. The tourism sector served 3.83 million visitors, against a record 18 million in 2022, with the government closing borders and canceling all international flights.[300] The fall was seen in almost all major markets, such as China, Malaysia, South Korea, Nhật bản and France.[274] In a recent report by Ho Chi Minh City Department of Tourism, about 90% of travel related businesses in the city had to suspend operations during the second wave.[301]

In 2022, 66 million passengers passed through the country’s airports, a 43.5% decrease given the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis and unfavorable weather conditions. Twenty two airports across Vietnam accommodated 340,000 flights operated by 68 foreign and five Vietnamese carriers, down 31.9% from 2022, they also handled nearly 1.3 million tons of cargo, down 14.7% year-on-year, according to a report released by the Civil Aviation Authority of Vietnam (CAAV). National flag carrier Vietnam Airlines and two budget carriers VietJet Air and Bamboo Airways have requested government tư vấn and refinancing loans. They estimated that under current conditions, the industry would only fully recover by 2023 the earliest.[302][303][304]

The fourth wave of COVID-19 epidemic caused the summer tourist season to freeze. Travel agencies are closed completely, restaurants, hotels, amusement parks can’t operate for many months. According to statistics from the Vietnam National Administration of Tourism, in the first nine months of 2022, the number of domestic tourists decreased by 16% compared to the same period in 2022 and decreased by 52% compared to 2022. Total revenue from tourism in the first 9 months of 2022 reached nearly 137,000 billion VND, down 41% over the same period in 2022. To restore the tourism industry, from the end of September, a series of localities such as Vinh Phuc, Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, Thanh Hoa, Quang Binh, Lam Dong, and Ho Chi Minh City have reopened intra-provincial tourism. Ho Chi Minh City is one of the leading places with tours to Can Gio and Cu Chi for frontline doctors and a series of commercial tours afterwards. In mid-October, many places began to receive foreign tourists to isolated resorts and tourist areas.[305] On 12 November, Vo Huy Cuong, deputy director of the Civil Aviation Administration of Vietnam, said that the agency had planned to organize nearly 30 flights to Kien Giang and Khanh Hoa. Accordingly, the agency has received a flight plan from Vietnam Airlines on 17 November and VietJet Air on 20 November to Phu Quoc island in Kien Giang. After that, there will be about 20 flights to Kien Giang and Khanh Hoa from Korea, Nhật bản, Taiwan and Thailand. On 17 November 2022, the flight bringing 29 international tourists to Hoi An landed Da Nang International Airport. These are the first international tourists to return to Vietnam under the vaccine passport program since the country suspended international arrivals in March 2022.[306][307]

On 6 February, under the lead of Phung Xuan Nha, the Minister of Vietnam Education and Training, the Steering Committee for Disease Prevention and Control met and agreed to let the student’s stay home by an additional week after the Tet holiday. On 14 February, the Ministry of Health reported that schools would remain closed until the end of February, after which schools would close nationwide. The nationwide school closure decision was issued together with a nationwide quarantine order on 31 March, which went into effect 1 April. As a matter of fact, Vietnamese students will not to go to school first semester on 20202021 academic year, so schools are slowly adopting trực tuyến teaching.[308] On 31 March, the Ministry of Education and Training issued a guide of teaching plans for the second semester of the academic year 20192020 for junior high school and high school levels.[309]

The 2022 National High School Graduation Examination (NHSGE) test is only the recognition of the student finishing the high school’s education programme instead of “two in one” purpose which is recognition of student finishing the high school’s education programme and using high school exams for university admission like before. The test will divided into two specific phases, first phase take place from 8 to 10 August for the least affected provinces. The second phase take place on 3 and 4 September 11 exam councils, with the participation of more than 26,000 students, mostly in the coronavirus epicentre in central Vietnam, along with others quarantined for having close contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases.[310]

School closures from February to May impacted an estimated 21.2 million children nationwide and meant the loss of access to key health and protective services as well as subsidized school meals. COVID-19 also triggered school drop-outs as children accompany parents seeking employment opportunities new locations. Approximately 3% of rural households reported they stopped sending children to school due to reduced incomes.[311] Household registration remains a potential administrative barrier, especially for migrant children, to access the public education system. Most notably, the COVID-19 crisis exacerbated the country’s stark digital divide: many learners live in remote regions with limited internet coverage, cannot afford devices required for trực tuyến learning or do not have teachers confident to facilitate such learning.[312] The provision of trực tuyến and distance learning programmes did not achieve nationwide coverage. Such learning programmes were available from primary to university levels, however, they primarily focused on grades 9 and 12 in other provinces. Only large cities had programmes from elementary to high school. User fees applied for some video lessons. Online and distance learning focused on few subjects like maths, Vietnamese and English and often not available in ethnic minority languages,[313] while vital extra curriculum programmes such as sex education were often not covered. Half of a survey’s interviewed participants reported their children studied less or not all while schools were closed. Many teachers were not well equipped to facilitate trực tuyến learning, while ethnic minority children and children with disabilities were disproportionately affected.[314]


Contrary to the pre-pandemic positive forecast, total pharmaceutical revenue in 2022 only increase by less than 3%, compared with an average of nearly 12% each year due to social distancing and tight control of hospital visits. According to SSI Research, in the ethical drugs market, infection concerns and strict health examination procedures many hospitals limit the number of patients who come for periodic check-ups causing the number of nationwide medical examination and treatment to decrease 10% to 15%. While in the over-the-counter drugs market (mainly from drugstores and pharmacies), people switch from buying drugs to hand sanitizers and medical masks, which are not the main product of most pharmaceutical companies in the country, reducing the sales of the whole industry.

However, 2022 was a “significant” year for merger and acquisition (M&A) activities in the pharmaceutical industry. The total value of M&A in 2022 is estimated $72.8 million USD, with the participation of many foreign investors. The biggest giảm giá is SK Group (Korea), which specializes in cancer, nerve and cardiovascular drugs, spent $39.8 million to buy 25% shares of Imexpharm Pharmaceutical Company (IMP). In addition, Stada Arzneimittel (Germany), specializing in the production of generic drugs, has spent more than $17.3 million raising its ownership in Pymepharco Joint Stock Company from 70% to 76%; while ASKA Pharmaceutical (Nhật bản), specializing in gastrointestinal drugs, hormones and obstetrics and gynecology, spent $16 million to own 25% stake in Hataphar the second largest drug company in Vietnam in 2022. These foreign partners all have experience in high-quality drug portfolio that can assist Vietnamese pharmaceutical companies.[315]

The pandemic poses a big challenge to the performance of the pharmaceutical industry, especially if the disease spreads in the community. But in general, spending on health care is essential and the demand only decreased for a short time. Furthermore, Vietnam’s rapidly aging population and increasing per capita income continue to tư vấn the long-term growth of the healthcare market, so “the possibility of the industry recovering in 2022 is very likely” SSI’s report assessed.[316]

The pandemic forced the 2022 V.League 1 to be delayed to 7 March until further notice, which affected the preparations of Vietnam national football team for the upcoming 2022 World Cup qualifications.[317][318] It also caused the inaugural Vietnamese Grand Prix, scheduled to be part of the 2022 Formula One World Championship, to be postponed and later cancelled in its entirety.[319][320][321]

On 23 May 2022, the 2022 V.League 1 had its match between CLB Dược Nam Hà Tỉnh Nam Định and CLB Hoàng Anh Gia Lai with 10,000 spectators on Thiên Trường Stadium, the first professional football match in the world to allow spectators since the pandemic first broke out.[322][323]

Due to national travel restrictions, the League of Legends esports teams of Vietnam Championship Series could not participate in the 2022 World Championship[324] and 2022 Mid-Season Invitational.[325]

Vietnam’s National Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health commissioned singers Min and Erik to record the tuy nhiên “Ghen Cô Vy” (“Jealous [of] Coronavirus”), a remake of the 2022 tuy nhiên “Ghen” (“Jealous”), to promote common prevention measures against the COVID-19 pandemic, such as personal hygiene, hand-washing and social distancing.[326][327][138] The tuy nhiên has since gone viral, first earning praise from John Oliver in his talk show Last Week Tonight with John Oliver and has become increasingly popular among the public and was frequently duplicated by netizens, with the UNICEF also recommending the video as a means of combating COVID-19 fears.[328]

International reactionsEdit

    Asian Development Bank: In December 2022, ADB announced it has provided to Vietnam $600,000 USD in material aid. This would facilitate the addition of protective equipment worth US$500,000 the National Lung Hospital in Hanoi and a US$100,000 gear upgrade the Public Health Emergency Operation Center (PHEOC) under the Ministry of Health.[329]Australia: Simon Birmingham, Minister for Trade, Tourism and Investment congratulated Vietnam for its achievements in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.[330] He thanked Vietnam for resuming the export of rice, helping rice importing countries including small countries in the Oceania-Pacific region to ensure their food demand.[330] The Australian government also pledged to deliver 1.5 million AstraZeneca vaccine doses to Vietnam by the end of 2022.[331]Chile: Chilean Ambassador to Vietnam, Jaime Chomali said Vietnam has recorded only few new infections although having high population which showed that its efforts have produced persuasive outcomes. He feels confident in Vietnam’s rapid economic recovery than that of other regional countries.[332]China: In a phone call with his Vietnamese counterpart Nguyễn Phú Trọng, Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping said that he “appreciates the results of the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic in Vietnam, as well as the cooperation and coordination between the two countries in the fight against the coronavirus”.[333][334] In June 2022, 500,000 doses of Sinopharm’s Vero Cell vaccine and more than 500,000 syringes donated by the Chinese government to Vietnam, arrived in Hanoi.[335]Czech Republic: On 26 July the Czech government announced an aid to Vietnam with 250,000 doses of COVID-19 vaccine. The Czech Prime Minister said that although the epidemic situation in the Czech Republic continues to be very complicated, the government of the Czech Republic will continue to cooperate and tư vấn Vietnam. Specifically, the Czech Republic is ready to cede 500,000 doses of vaccines and some rapid test kits to Vietnam, as well as call on other European countries to tư vấn with vaccines being used by countries in the region such as: AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Moderna, Sinopharm.[336]France: On August 2022, French president Emmanuel Macron announced that he will deliver 670,000 doses of vaccine to Vietnam through the COVAX mechanism.[337]Germany: In a statement published on its Meta page on 14 April, the Federal Foreign Office showed appreciation and gratitude for the reactions of the Vietnamese government and people of Vietnam in supporting the European country’s efforts in combatting COVID-19.[338] As of the end of September 2022, Germany has donated 3.45 million doses of AstraZeneca vaccine and tens of thousands of medical devices to Vietnam.[339]Hungary: On 11 August 2022, the Hungarian government decided to donate 100,000 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to the Vietnamese and 100,000 rapid antigen test kits to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic.[340]Nhật bản: Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said that his government decided to hand out a coronavirus stimulus of ¥100,000 per individual, including Vietnamese living and working in Nhật bản and affirmed to continue efforts to ensure safety for Vietnamese citizens. Two governments agreed to continue working closely in strengthening exchanges and cooperation across all fields. Abe affirmed Nhật bản will continue offering the second tư vấn package to help Vietnam cope with the disease and assist the country in economic growth.[341] As of August 2022, Nhật bản has donated nearly 3 million doses of AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine to Vietnam.[342]Poland: In August 2022, the Polish government donated more than 501,000 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to Vietnam and donated medical equipment and supplies worth $4 million USD to Vietnam.[343]Romania: On 6 August, Romania announced that will begin to deliver for không lấy phí 1.3 million COVID-19 vaccines to another four countries to help tackle the pandemic. The donation for Vietnam consists of 300,000 doses.[344]Russia: Prime Minister of Russia Mikhail Mishustin agreed with the Vietnamese government to continue facilitating trade between the two countries amid the pandemic. He also spoke highly of Vietnam’s response to the COVID-19 and thanked Vietnam for offering 150,000 face masks to help Russia giảm giá with the pandemic.[345] Russian Ambassador Konstantin Vnukov appreciated Vietnam’s performance in the fight against COVID-19 and expressed hope that the countries would proceed with their mutual tư vấn in the fight against the pandemic.[332]South Korea: South Korean President Moon Jae-in highly valued the measures taken by the Vietnamese government in containing the pandemic and affirmed that South Korea was ready to share experiences and cooperate with Vietnam in fighting the pandemic and protecting the population.[346]Switzerland: According to the information of the Humanitarian Aid Agency (Swiss Humanitarian Aid) of the Swiss Ministry of Foreign Affairs, on 12 August 2022, a shipment of medical aid from the Swiss government to Vietnam was sent from Zurich. The shipment worth 5 million Swiss francs ($5.4 million USD) includes 13 tons of medical equipment, including 30 ventilators, 500,000 antigen test kits and 300,000 masks.[347]United Kingdom: Gareth Ward, British Ambassador to Vietnam expressed his thanks for the tư vấn of the Vietnamese government for the British repatriation flight and the medical supplies to aid the UK in combating the pandemic.[348] In August 2022, the United Kìngdom donated 415,000 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to Vietnam.[349]United States: The United States Ambassador to Vietnam, Daniel Kritenbrink, praised Vietnam for its rapid response to the outbreak.[350] The US delegation also praised Vietnam for its quarantine efforts, and has cooperated with the Vietnamese Embassy in the United States.[351] Matthew Moore, a Hanoi-based official from the CDC expressed “great confidence” in the Vietnamese government’s response to the crisis.[352]


Number of cases by age and conditions

COVID-19 patient condition in Vietnam (as of 29 September 2022)ConditionsNumber of cases (% of total cases)Recovered557,124 (72.7%)Asymptomatic and mild symptoms184,405 (23.9%)Severe condition (using oxygen mask and non-invasive ventilation)6,455 (0.8%)Critical condition (using invasive ventilation and ECMO)903 (0.1%)Death18,936 (2.5%)

Number of cases by condition:

In-patient: 64,085 (7.15% of confirmed cases)

Discharged: 810,290 (90.42% of confirmed cases)

Deaths: 21,802 (2.43% of confirmed cases)

Other causes of deaths: 4 (0.00% of confirmed cases)

Number of cases by gender:

Male: 45.0% of confirmed cases

Female: 55.0% of confirmed cases

Number of cases by source of infection:

Community-spread: 99.6% of confirmed cases

Imported: 0.4% of confirmed cases

No. of confirmed cases, active cases, recoveries and deaths (linear)

Number of new cases per day

Number of fatalities per day

Details of deaths due to COVID-19 in Vietnam (as of 14 July 2022)NumberCase no.DateAgeGenderNationalityPlace of detectionPlace of deathCauses of deathNotesSourceConfirmed deaths142831 July 202070MaleVietnamĐà NẵngHuế Central HospitalHeart attack and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease[353]243761MaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure, respiratory arrest and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure and gout[354]34991 August 202068FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng Oncology HospitalRespiratory arrest and COVID-19Had a history of leukemia, type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure[355]45242 August 202086FemaleVietnamQuảng Nam ProvinceHuế Central HospitalSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease and heart disease[356]547583FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng HospitalHigh blood pressure and COVID-19Had a history of multiple joint osteoarthritis642953FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng HospitalHeart failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes[357]74264 August 202062FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHuế Central HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease[358]849665MaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng HospitalHeart failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease and sepsis[359]96516 August 202067FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng HospitalRespiratory arrest and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, lupus erythematosus and type 2 diabetes[360]1071867FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng HospitalHeart failure and COVID-19Had a history of malignant multiple myeloma, type 2 diabetes and sepsis[361]114569 August 202055FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHuế Central Hospital (2nd Branch)Gastrointestinal bleeding, cardiac arrest and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure[362]1243010 August 202033FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHuế Central Hospital (2nd Branch)Respiratory arrest and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, heart disease, high blood pressure and sepsis[363]1373747FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreHeart failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, heart disease and high blood pressure1443666MaleVietnamĐà NẵngHuế Central Hospital (2nd Branch)Heart failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease[364]1552268MaleVietnamQuảng Nam ProvinceHuế Central Hospital (2nd Branch)Pulmonary artery occlusion and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, left kidney cancer with lung metastases and type 2 diabetes[365]1683211 August 202037MaleVietnamQuảng Trị ProvinceHuế Central Hospital (2nd Branch)Heart failure and COVID-19Had a history of heart disease and type 1 diabetes[366]1743112 August 202055MaleVietnamĐà NẵngHuế Central Hospital (2nd Branch)Hypotension and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure and type 1 diabetes[367]1848513 August 202052FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreCOVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes[368]1962383FemaleVietnamQuảng Nam ProvinceHuế Central Hospital (2nd Branch)Septic shock, total organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of myelosuppression, sigmoid colon tumor, malnutrition[369]2047987MaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSurgical site infection and COVID-19Had a history of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure2158514 August 202061FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity[370]2270215 August 202063MaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSeptic shock, total organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure and heart disease[371]2369975MaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and heart disease[372]2457516 August 202082FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSeptic shock, respiratory arrest and COVID-19Had a history of meningitis[373]2569818 August 202051FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng Hospital for Lung DiseasesSeptic shock, total organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of ovarian cancer metastasis to the abdomen, kidney stones, urinary tract infections[374]2666622 August 202093MaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSeptic shock, total organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, heart disease, high blood pressure[375]2757723 August 202073FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng HospitalSeptic shock, total organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure and anemia[376]2875826 August 202036FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSeptic shock, total organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, peritoneal dialysis, heart disease and high blood pressure[377]2982766MaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSeptic shock, total organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure[378]3069627 August 202051FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSeptic shock, total organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, heart disease and high blood pressure[379]3199629 August 202028MaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng Hospital for Lung DiseasesSeptic shock, total organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of acute lymphocytic leukemia, myelosuppression.[380]3295767FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, cerebrovascular accident and hemiplegia[381]3374231 August 202069MaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng Hospital for Lung DiseasesSeptic shock, total organ failure, respiratory arrest and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, heart disease, atrial fibrillation, type 2 diabetes[382]341,04055MaleVietnamĐà NẵngAt homeCOVID-19Had a history of Guillain-barre syndrome, type 2 diabetes[383]357613 September 202083FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreRespiratory arrest and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure and gastrointestinal bleeding[384]363,83915 May 202189FemaleVietnamBắc Ninh ProvinceHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch) (NHTD #2)Respiratory arrest and COVID-19Had a history of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and collapsed vertebrae[385]373,05517 May 202134MaleVietnamBắc Ninh ProvinceNHTD #2Traumatic brain injury and COVID-19Brain injury due to traffic accident[386]383,19720 May 202164FemaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of liver cancer[387]393,55481MaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of cirrhosis, diabetes, hypertension, gout[388]403,02821 May 202170FemaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of diabetes and stroke[389]413,65389FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng Hospital for Lung DiseasesSeptic shock, respiratory arrest and COVID-19Had a history of heart disease, high blood pressure and gastritis[390]423,02223 May 202172FemaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Total organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high blood pressure[391]433,01524 May 202150MaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock, multiple organ failure, sepsis, gastrointestinal bleeding and COVID-19Had a history of cirrhosis[392]444,80738FemaleVietnamBắc Giang ProvinceBắc Giang General HospitalSeptic shock and COVID-19The first case died without any underlying disease[393]453,76026 May 202167FemaleVietnamBắc Ninh ProvinceNHTD #2Septic shock, heart failure and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, hypothyroidism, diabetes and obesity[394]463,88127 May 202181MaleVietnamBắc Ninh ProvinceNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19[395]473,02628 May 202122FemaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock, fungal bloodstream infection and COVID-19Had a history of bone marrow failure. Youngest patient died by COVID-19[396]483,3541 June 202176MaleVietnamLạng Sơn ProvinceNHTD #2Multiple organ failure, hypovolemic shock and COVID-19[397]495,4632 June 202137FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City Hospital for Tropical DiseasesSeptic shock, sepsis and COVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease and peritoneal dialysis[398]503,7804 June 202167MaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock, multiple organ failure, sepsis and COVID-19Had a history of lung cancer brain metastases[399]513,15363MaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of ankylosing spondylitis[400]524,3695 June 202135FemaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of colon cancer lung metastases[401]533,01853FemaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock, multiple organ failure, aspergillosis and COVID-19Had a history of polyneuropathy[402]543,4228 June 202151MaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock, gastrointestinal bleeding and COVID-19Had a history of toxic hepatitis[403]554,63288FemaleVietnamBắc Giang ProvinceBắc Giang Lung HospitalSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease and senility[404]564,11511 June 202165FemaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of cervical cancer[405]573,59559FemaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of gallbladder cancer584,11812 June 202164FemaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of lung cancer[406]595,35513 June 202176MaleVietnamBắc Ninh ProvinceNHTD #2Septic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of polyarthritis, duodenal ulcer[407]608,51214 June 202187FemaleVietnamBắc Ninh ProvinceNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of heart disease, high blood pressure and parkinson’s disease[408]614,73160FemaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock, aspergillosis and COVID-19Had a history of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma628,21718 June 202171FemaleVietnamTây Ninh ProvinceBến Cầu Medical CentreSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of tuberculosis, high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes[409]6312,15119 June 202190FemaleVietnamBắc Giang ProvinceBắc Giang Psychiatric HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, necrosis of the left forearm and senility[410]643,86667MaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock, candidiasis and COVID-19Had a history of bronchial cancer654,39120 June 202153MaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and high blood pressure[411]666,04380MaleVietnamBắc Ninh ProvinceNHTD #2Septic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of heart disease, high blood pressure, kidney disease and asthma6711,59221 June 202175MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCủ Chi COVID-19 HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure, sepsis and COVID-19Had a history of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia[412][413]686,89186FemaleVietnamBắc Giang ProvinceBắc Giang General HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of heart disease and senility6912,00767FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCủ Chi COVID-19 HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and Cushing’s syndrome7011,79323 June 202161FemaleVietnamTiền Giang ProvinceTiền Giang Hospital of Tuberculosis and Respiratory DiseaseSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes[414]7113,08224 June 202188MaleVietnamBắc Giang ProvinceBắc Giang Psychiatric HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and senility[415]7211,08182MaleVietnamBắc Giang ProvinceBắc Giang Psychiatric HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, diabetes, gout and senility739,83025 June 202144MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of type 2 diabetes[416]7411,45668FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and diabetes759,77927 June 202180MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City Hospital for Tropical DiseasesSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, gout and Cushing’s syndrome[417][418]7614,65653FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalSeptic shock and COVID-197713,82729 June 202177MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityTrưng Vương HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of cerebrovascular accident, hemiplegia and high blood pressure[419][420]7813,34754MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityTrưng Vương HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of kidney disease, high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes7910,47464FemaleVietnamBắc Giang ProvinceBắc Giang Psychiatric HospitalSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of cerebrovascular accident and polyarthritis809,01485FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City Hospital for Tropical DiseasesSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes8112,93830 June 202161MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityTrưng Vương HospitalMultiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of tuberculosis[421]823,7992 July 202169MaleVietnamBắc Ninh ProvinceBắc Ninh General HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19[422]8315,97067MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalHeart attack and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes chronic kidney disease and prostatic hypertrophy8411,61864MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCủ Chi COVID-19 HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure, sepsis and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and ischemic heart disease855,2204 July 202181FemaleVietnamBắc Ninh ProvinceNHTD #2Septic shock, blood fungal infection and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and stroke[423]869,53364MaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock, blood fungal infection and COVID-19Had a history of throat cancer8718,2655 July 202168MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease[424]8816,34081FemaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and acute adrenal insufficiency8917,10073FemaleVietnamLong An ProvinceLong An General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, heart disease, lupus erythematosus, knee osteoarthritis, sacral ulcers and Cushing’s syndrome9019,60288FemaleVietnamLong An ProvinceLong An General HospitalGastrointestinal perforation and COVID-19Had a history of ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary tuberculosis and stroke9113,8816 July 202171FemaleVietnamNghệ An ProvinceNghệ An Friendship General HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, diabetes and osteoarthritis[425][426][427]9219,18262FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City Hospital for Tropical DiseasesPulmonary embolism, septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and atrial fibrillation938,58197FemaleVietnamHà Tĩnh ProvinceNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure943,18062FemaleVietnamHanoiNHTD #2Septic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, diabetes and pancreatic cancer9517,90168FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityBình Chánh District HospitalCOVID-199616,33964FemaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and adrenal failure9720,26164MaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and ischemic heart disease9810,0967 July 202167FemaleVietnamBắc Giang ProvinceNHTD #2Septic shock, multiple organ failure, heart attack and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and diabetes[428]9913,18349MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalSeptic shock, acute kidney injury and COVID-1910012,41162MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of type 2 diabetes10113,70963FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalCOVID-1910214,81256MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-1910312,5668 July 202174MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityTrưng Vương HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of cirrhosis due to hepatitis C, liver cancer, high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes[429]10413,04172FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngĐà Nẵng Lung HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, candidiasis and COVID-19Had a history of type 2 diabetes, obesity and heart disease10510,09667FemaleVietnamBắc Giang ProvinceNHTD #2There was an error in the MOH’s statistics, causing this patient to appear twice in the list of deaths (the 98th death)10615,5699 July 202150FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityTrưng Vương HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19[430]10713,93885FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityTrưng Vương HospitalMultiple organ failure, heart failure and COVID-19Had a history of stroke10820,58754FemaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease10920,02643FemaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalAcute coronary syndrome and COVID-19Had a history of elevated liver enzymes, type 2 diabetes and thalassaemia11021,62359FemaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceAn Hiệp commune quarantine facilityCOVID-19Had a history of heart disease, diabetes and multi-membrane tuberculosis11119,59110 July 202159FemaleVietnamLong An ProvinceLong An Lung HospitalSepsis and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure[431]11210,93664FemaleVietnamBắc Giang ProvinceNHTD #2Septic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of diabetes and thyroid nodules11313,09911 July 202179MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure and COVID-19Had a history of tuberculosis and type 2 diabetes[432]11412,96761FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalSeptic shock and COVID-1911519,94361FemaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and ischemic heart disease11620,04365MaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of sacral ulcer, cerebrovascular accident, type 2 diabetes and Cushing’s syndrome11720,01052FemaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes11820,03543FemaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of type 2 diabetes, stroke and Cushing’s syndrome11920,60859MaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and cirrhosis due to hepatitis B12026,65812 July 202144MaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of pleural cancer and cirrhosis[433][434]12117,05374MaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalHeart attack and COVID-19Had a history of heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease12219,97148FemaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalHeart attack and COVID-19Had a history of heart disease, high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease and ischemic heart disease12319,60767FemaleVietnamLong An ProvinceLong An General HospitalKlebsiella pneumoniae infection and COVID-19Had a history of decompensated cirrhosis, hepatitis B and heart disease12420,02378FemaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of gastrointestinal infections, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and liver cancer12520,02563FemaleVietnamĐồng Tháp ProvinceSa Đéc General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease and Cushing’s syndrome12617,48813 July 202138FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCủ Chi COVID-19 HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of chronic kidney disease[435][436]12714,62539MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalSeptic shock, kidney failure and COVID-19Had a history of tuberculosis12813,29861MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityPhạm Ngọc Thạch HospitalKidney failure and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure12918,75348FemaleVietnamĐồng Nai ProvinceĐồng Nai Lung HospitalHeart attack and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, obesity, abnormal liver enzymes and lipid disorder13012,45155MaleVietnamBắc Giang ProvinceNHTD #2Septic shock, pneumothorax and COVID-19Had a history of cirrhosis1312,98365FemaleVietnamAn Giang ProvinceHo Chi Minh City Hospital for Tropical DiseasesSeptic shock, brain hemorrhage and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and diabetes13217,16577FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City Hospital for Tropical DiseasesSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes13321,84214 July 202187FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City Hospital for Tropical DiseasesSeptic shock, heart attack and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and senility[437]13427,27267MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City Hospital for Tropical DiseasesSeptic shock, multiple organ failure, trichosporon asahii skin infection and COVID-19Had a history of arthritis and stroke13516,22383FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City Hospital for Tropical DiseasesSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, senility and heart attack13618,45380FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City Hospital for Tropical DiseasesSeptic shock and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and heart disease13719,61465FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCần Giờ COVID-19 HospitalSeptic shock, multiple organ failure, gastrointestinal bleeding and COVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes13825,57442MaleVietnamLong An ProvinceEn-route to hospitalHeart failure, subcutaneous emphysema and COVID-19Had a history of bronchial asthma and obesityOther causes and unconfirmed deaths141818 August 202061MaleVietnamĐà NẵngHuế Central Hospital (2nd Branch)Septic shock and chronic kidney failureTested negative four times for COVID-19[438]245326 August 202056FemaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSeptic shock, heart failure and chronic kidney failureTested negative three times for COVID-19[439]37642 September 202067MaleVietnamĐà NẵngHòa Vang Medical CentreSeptic shock and chronic kidney failureTested negative three times for COVID-19[440]42,22913 February 202154MaleJapanHanoiHanoi Somerset West PointUnknownTested positive for COVID-19 after died, the patient was autopsied but the Vietnamese government never publicly announced the cause of death[441]58 June 202157FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityEn-route to hospitalMultiple organ failureHad a history of high blood pressure and diabetes. Died before confirmed with COVID-19[442]617,1083 July 202168MaleVietnamPhú Yên ProvinceSơn Hòa District Medical CentreCOVID-19Had a history of stroke, unconfirmed by Vietnam’s Ministry of Health[443]73 July 202126MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh City30-4 HospitalSeptic shock, respiratory failureTested positive for COVID-19 after died. The patient was a prisoner, may infected from guards Chí Hòa Prison[444]821,32112 July 202181UnknownVietnamPhú Yên ProvincePhú Yên General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and Parkinson’s disease[445]931,60554UnknownVietnamPhú Yên ProvincePhú Yên General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of diabetes and polyarthritis1020,53265UnknownVietnamPhú Yên ProvincePhú Yên General HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of high blood pressure1133,71613 July 202168FemaleVietnamPhú Yên ProvinceAt homeUnknownHad a history of high blood pressure and diabetes. Died before tested positive for COVID-19[446][447]1241MaleVietnamTiền Giang ProvinceTiền Giang Tuberculosis and Lung Disease HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of gout1319,68494MaleVietnamTiền Giang ProvinceTiền Giang Tuberculosis and Lung Disease HospitalCOVID-19Had a history of senilityDetails of first 250 COVID-19 confirmed cases in Vietnam (as of 6 July 2022)CaseDateAgeGenderNationalityPlace of detectionPlace of treatmentBeen to Wuhan, HubeiBeen to Covid-19 countries (excluding China)StatusNoteSource123 January 202066MaleChinaHo Chi Minh CityCho Ray HospitalYesNoDischarged[448]228YesNoDischargedSon of case 1330 January 202025FemaleVietnamThanh HoaThanh Hoa General HospitalYesNoDischarged[448]429MaleVinh PhucHanoi National Hospital of Tropical DiseasesYesNoDischarged523FemaleYesNoDischarged61 February 202025FemaleVietnamKhanh HoaKhanh Hoa Hospital of Tropical DiseasesNoNoDischargedRelated to cases 1 and 2[448]72 February 202073MaleUnited StatesHo Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City Hospital of Tropical DiseasesYesNoDischargedStayed Wuhan Tianhe International Airport before flying to Vietnam[448]83 February 202029FemaleVietnamVinh PhucHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)YesNoDischarged[448]94 February 202030MaleVietnamVinh PhucHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)YesNoDischarged[448]1042FemaleBinh Xuyen District Medical CentreNoNoDischargedCousin of case 5116 February 202049FemaleVietnamVinh PhucBinh Xuyen District Medical CentreNoNoDischargedMother of case 5[448]1216NoNoDischargedSister of case 5137 February 202029FemaleVietnamVinh PhucTam Dao Health CentreYesNoDischarged[448]149 February 202055FemaleVietnamVinh PhucHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedNeighbor of case 5[448]1511 February 20203 monthsFemaleVietnamVinh PhucVietnam National Children’s HospitalNoNoDischargedGrandchildren of case 10[448]1613 February 202050MaleVietnamVinh PhucBinh Xuyen District Medical CentreNoNoDischargedFather of case 5[448]176 March 202026FemaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischargedVisited to United Kingdom, Italy and France. Related to flight VN54 cluster[449][450]187 March 202027MaleVietnamNinh BinhNinh Binh General HospitalNoYesDischargedWorked in Daegu[451]1964FemaleHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedAunt of case 172027MaleNoNoDischargedDriver of case 17218 March 202061MaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischargedFlight VN54 cluster[452]2260United KingdomDa NangDa Nang HospitalNoYesDischarged2366NoYesDischarged2467FemaleIrelandQuang NinhHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged2550United KingdomNoYesDischarged2674MaleNoYesDischarged2770FemaleNoYesDischarged2869MaleLao CaiNoYesDischarged2970FemaleNoYesDischarged3066Thua Thien HueHue Central Hospital (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged319 March 202049MaleUnited KingdomQuang NamHue Central Hospital (2nd Branch)NoYesDischargedFlight VN54 cluster[453]3210 March 202024FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityHo Chi Minh City Hospital of Tropical DiseasesNoYesDischargedFriend and related to case 17 London before flied to Vietnam[454]3358MaleUnited KingdomQuang NamHue Central Hospital (2nd Branch)NoYesDischargedFlight VN54 cluster[455]3451FemaleVietnamBinh ThuanBinh Thuan General HospitalNoYesDischargedVisited United States and Qatar3511 March 202029FemaleVietnamDa NangDa Nang HospitalNoNoDischargedRelated to cases 22 and 23 in Da Nang3664Binh ThuanBinh Thuan General HospitalNoNoDischargedHelper of case 343737NoNoDischargedEmployee of case 343828NoNoDischargedDaughter-in-law of case 343925MaleHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedTour guide for case 24[456]4012 March 202059MaleVietnamBinh ThuanBinh Thuan General HospitalNoNoDischargedHusband of case 344128NoNoDischargedSon of case 34422FemaleNoNoDischargedGranddaughter of case 344347NoNoDischargedClose contact with case 384413MaleNoNoDischargedSon of case 374513 March 202025MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoNoDischargedClose contact with case 344630FemaleHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischargedFlight attendant on flight VN544743NoNoDischargedHelper of case 174814 March 202031MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoNoDischargedClose contact with case 344971United KingdomThua Thien HueHue Central Hospital (2nd Branch)NoYesDischargedHusband of case 30, related to flight VN54 cluster5024FemaleVietnamQuang Ninh2nd Field HospitalNoYesDischarged5150MaleHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged5222FemaleNoYesDischarged5353MaleCzech RepublicHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged5415 March 202033MaleLatviaHo Chi Minh CityCan Gio District Medical CentreNoYesDischarged[457][458]5535GermanyHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged5630United KingdomNoYesDischarged5766United KingdomQuang NamQuang Nam General HospitalNoYesDischargedSame flight as case 465816 March 202026FemaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged[457]5930NoYesDischargedFlight attendant on flight VN546029MaleFranceNoYesDischarged6142VietnamNinh ThuanNinh Thuan General HospitalNoYesDischarged6217 March 202018MaleVietnamQuang NinhHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged[457]6320FemaleHanoiNoYesDischarged6436Ho Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged6528NoNoDischargedColleague of case 45 and 486621NoYesDischarged6718 March 202036MaleVietnamNinh ThuanNinh Thuan General HospitalNoYesDischargedSame flight as case 61[457]6841United StatesDa NangDa Nang HospitalNoYesDischarged6930GermanyHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged7019VietnamNoYesDischarged7119FemaleNoYesDischarged7225FranceNoYesDischargedGirlfriend of case 607311MaleVietnamHai DuongThanh Mien District Medical CentreNoYesDischargedSame flight as case 46 and 597423Bac NinhBac Ninh General HospitalNoYesDischarged7540FemaleHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged7652MaleFranceHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged7719 March 202025FemaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged[457]7822MaleNoYesDischarged7948FemaleHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged8018MaleNoYesDischargedSon of case 798120NoYesDischarged8216FemaleNoYesDischarged8350United StatesNoYesDischarged8421MaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged8520NoYesDischarged8620 March 202054FemaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedBach Mai Hospital nurses[457]8734NoNoDischarged8825NoYesDischarged8922Ho Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged9021NoYesDischarged9143MaleUnited KingdomHo Chi Minh City Hospital of Tropical Diseases & Cho Ray Hospital[459]NoYesDischargedPilot of Vietnam Airlines, related to Bar Buddha cluster9221 March 202021MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged[457]9320HanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged9464FemaleNoYesDischarged9522 March 202020MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged[457]9621FemaleNoYesDischarged9734MaleUnited KingdomCan Gio District Medical CentreNoYesDischargedRelated to Bar Buddha cluster9834NoYesDischarged9929VietnamNoYesDischarged10055NoYesDischarged10126FemaleDong ThapSa Dec General HospitalNoYesDischargedPassengers on flight VN501029NoYesDischarged10322MaleNoYesDischarged10433FemaleNoYesDischarged10535Tra VinhTra Vinh Tuberculosis and Lung Disease HospitalNoYesDischarged10620NoYesDischarged10725HanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedDaughter of case 8610819MaleNoYesDischarged10942NoYesDischarged11019FemaleNoYesDischarged11125NoYesDischarged11230NoYesDischarged11318NoYesDischarged11423 March 202019MaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged[457]11544FemaleNoYesDischargedDaughter of case 9411629MaleNoNoDischargedDoctor who infected from his patients11730Tay NinhTay Ninh General HospitalNoYesDischargedVisited Cambodia11823FemaleNoYesDischarged11929MaleUnited StatesHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged12027CanadaNoYesDischargedClose contact with case 9112158VietnamCan Gio District Medical CentreNoYesDischarged12224FemaleDa NangDa Nang HospitalNoYesDischargedWorked as a bartender in Bangkok, Thailand12317Ben TreBinh Dai District Medical CentreNoYesDischarged12424 March 202052MaleBrazilHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoNoDischargedRelated to Bar Buddha cluster[460]12522FemaleSouth AfricaCan Gio District Medical CentreNoNoDischarged12628MaleCan Gio District Medical CentreNoNoDischarged12723VietnamCu Chi Field HospitalNoNoDischarged12820HanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged12920NoYesDischarged13030NoYesDischarged13123NoYesDischarged13225FemaleNoYesDischarged13366Lai ChauNoNoDischargedInfected from Bach Mai Hospital13410MaleThanh HoaNoYesDischarged13525 March 202027FemaleVietnamDa NangDa Nang HospitalNoYesDischarged[460]136-14021-363 males, 2 femalesVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYes5 Discharged14129MaleVietnamNoNoDischargedDoctor infected by his patients14226 March 202026MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCan Gio District Medical CentreNoYesDischarged14358FemaleSouth AfricaCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged14422MaleVietnamTra VinhTra Vinh Tuberculosis and Lung Disease HospitalNoYesDischarged14534MaleVietnamCan ThoCan Tho Tuberculosis and Lung Disease HospitalNoYesDischarged14617FemaleVietnamHa TinhCau Treo General HospitalNoYesDischarged14719MaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged14858FranceNoYesDischarged14940MaleVietnamQuang Ninh2nd Field HospitalNoYesDischarged15055MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCan Gio District Medical CentreNoYesDischarged15145FemaleBrazilCu Chi Field HospitalNoNoDischargedClose contact with case 12415227FemaleVietnamCan Gio District Medical CentreNoNoDischargedSister of case 12715360FemaleVietnamCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged15427 March 202023FemaleVietnamCan ThoCan Tho Tuberculosis and Lung Disease HospitalNoYesDischarged155-156211 male, 1 femaleVietnamBac LieuBac Lieu General HospitalNoYes2 Discharged15731FemaleUnited KingdomHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoNoDischargedRelated to Bar Buddha cluster15845MaleBrazilNoNoDischarged15933MaleBrazilCan Gio District Medical CentreNoYesDischarged16030FemaleVietnamNoYesDischarged16188FemaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedInfected from Bach Mai Hospital16263FemaleVietnamNoNoDischargedDaughter-in-law of case 16116343FemaleVietnamHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedGrand daughter of case 161164-16628 March 202023-582 males, 1 femaleVietnamNinh BinhNinh Binh General HospitalNoYes3 Discharged16720FemaleDenmarkHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged16849FemalesVietnamHa NamHa Nam General HospitalNoNoDischargedWorking Bach Mai Hospital16949FemalesVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischarged17027MaleVietnamNinh BinhKim Son District General HospitalNoNoDischargedRelated to Bach Mai Hospital cluster17119FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged17235FemaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedDaughter-in-law of case 13317343FemaleVietnamNoYesDischarged17457FemaleVietnamNoNoDischargedWorking Bach Mai Hospital175-17729 March 202038-571 male, 2 femalesVietnamHanoiNoNo3 Discharged17844FemaleVietnamThai NguyenNoNoDischarged17962MaleVietnamThanh HoaHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged180-18219-331 male, 2 femalesVietnamNinh BinhNinh Binh General HospitalNoYes3 Discharged18343FemaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedClose contact with case 14818442FemaleVietnamNoNoDischargedWorking Bach Mai Hospital18538MaleVietnamNoNoDischargedInfected from Bach Mai Hospital18652FemaleFranceNoYesDischargedWife of case 7618730MaleUnited StatesNoYesDischarged18844FemaleVietnamHa NamHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedWorking Bach Mai Hospital189-19630 March 202021-498 femalesVietnamHanoiNoNo8 Discharged19741MaleVietnamNoNoDischargedInfected from Bach Mai Hospital198-20223-615 femalesVietnamNoNo5 DischargedWorking Bach Mai Hospital20335FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCan Gio District Medical CentreNoYesDischarged20431 March 202010MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh City Children’s HospitalNoYesDischarged20541MaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedWorking Bach Mai Hospital20648MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoNoDischargedDriver of cases 124 and 15120749MaleBrazilNoNoDischargedHusband of case 151 and colleague of case 1242081 April 202038FemaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedWorking Bach Mai Hospital20955FemaleVietnamNoNoDischargedRelated to case 16321026FemaleVietnamHa TinhCau Treo General HospitalNoYesDischarged21123FemaleVietnamNinh BinhNinh Binh General HospitalNoYesDischarged21235FemaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged21340FemaleVietnamNoNoDischargedRelated to Bach Mai Hospital cluster214-21531-451 male, 1 femaleVietnamNoNo2 DischargedWorking Bach Mai Hospital216-21825-483 femalesVietnamNoYes3 Discharged2192 April 202059FemaleVietnamNoNoDischargedRelated to case 133 and infected from Bach Mai Hospital220-22220-281 male, 2 femalesVietnamNoYes3 Discharged22329FemaleVietnamNoNoDischargedWorking Bach Mai Hospital22439MaleBrazilHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoNoDischargedRelated to case 158225-22622-352 malesVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYes2 Discharged22731MaleVietnamNoNoDischargedSon of case 2092283 April 202029MaleVietnamNinh BinhNinh Binh General HospitalNoYesDischarged22930FemaleVietnamNho Quan District General HospitalNoYesDischarged23028FemaleVietnamNinh Binh General HospitalNoYesDischarged23157FemaleVietnamHa NamHa Nam General HospitalNoNoDischargedWorking Bach Mai Hospital232-23324-671 male, 1 femaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYes2 Discharged23469FemaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCan Gio District Medical CentreNoYesDischarged235-23625-261 male, 1 femaleUnited KingdomCu Chi Field HospitalNoNo2 DischargedRelated to Bar Buddha cluster23764MaleSwedenHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged2384 April 202017FemaleVietnamHa TinhCau Treo General HospitalNoYesDischargedClose contact with case 21023971MaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoNoDischargedInfected from Bach Mai Hospital24029FemaleVietnamNinh BinhNinh Binh General HospitalNoYesDischargedWorking in Bangkok, Thailand and related to case 1662415 April 202020MaleVietnamBac LieuBac Lieu General HospitalNoYesDischarged2426 April 202034FemaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged24347MaleVietnamNoNoDischargedInfected in Bach Mai Hospital244-24521-442 femalesVietnamNoYes2 DischargedPassengers on flight SU2902467 April 202033MaleVietnamNoYesDischarged24728MaleVietnamDong NaiDong Nai Lung HospitalNoNoDischargedClose contact with cases 124 and 15124820MaleVietnamHo Chi Minh CityCu Chi Field HospitalNoYesDischarged24955MaleVietnamHanoiHanoi National Hospital of Tropical Diseases (2nd Branch)NoYesDischarged2508 April 202050FemaleVietnamNoNoDischargedNeighbour of case 243^ Excluding four patients who tested negative for COVID-19 but died of other causes.[2]


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