Mẹo về Based on the data in Figure 1, which of the following most likely represents the change in energy 2022

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Background

Since the Industrial Revolution began in the 1700s, people have added a substantial amount of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels, cutting down forests, and conducting other activities (see the U.S. and
Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions indicators). When greenhouse gases are emitted into the atmosphere, many remain there for long time periods ranging from a decade to many millennia. Over time, these gases are removed from the atmosphere by chemical reactions or by emissions sinks, such as the oceans and vegetation, which absorb greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. As a
result of human activities, however, these gases are entering the atmosphere more quickly than they are being removed, and thus their concentrations are increasing.

Nội dung chính

    Technical DocumentationWhich of the following most likely explains how the chromosomes circled in Figure 1?Which of the following best explains the connection between energy growth and the maintenance?Which statement is the most accurate description of the reaction shown in Figure 1?Which of the following pathways for the transformation of cellular energy most likely evolved first?

Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and certain manufactured gases called halogenated gases (gases that contain chlorine, fluorine, or bromine) become well mixed throughout the global atmosphere because of their relatively long lifetimes and because of transport by winds. Concentrations of these greenhouse gases are
measured in parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb), or parts per trillion (ppt) by volume. In other words, a concentration of 1 ppb for a given gas means there is one molecule of that gas in every 1 billion molecules of air. Some halogenated gases are considered major greenhouse gases due to their very high global warming potentials and long atmospheric lifetimes even if they only exist a few ppt
(see table).

Ozone is also a greenhouse gas, but it differs from other greenhouse gases in several ways. The effects of ozone depend on its altitude, or where the gas is located vertically in the atmosphere. Most ozone naturally exists in the layer of the atmosphere called the stratosphere, which ranges from approximately 6 to 30 miles above the
Earth’s surface. Ozone in the stratosphere has a slight net warming effect on the planet, but it is good for life on Earth because it absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun, preventing it from reaching the Earth’s surface. In the troposphere—the layer of the atmosphere near ground level—ozone is an air pollutant that is harmful to breathe, a main ingredient of urban smog, and an important greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change (see the
Climate Forcing indicator). Unlike the other major greenhouse gases, tropospheric ozone only lasts for days to weeks, so levels often vary by location and by season. 

Technical Documentation

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References

1. USGCRP (U.S. Global Change Research Program). 2022. Climate science special report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, volume I. Wuebbles, D.J., D.W. Fahey, K.A. Hibbard, D.J. Dokken, B.C. Stewart, and T.K. Maycock, eds. ://science2017.globalchange.gov. doi:10.7930/J0J964J6.

2. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2022. Climate change 2022: Mitigation of climate change. Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. .

3. USGCRP (U.S. Global Change Research Program). 2022. Climate science special report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, volume I. Wuebbles, D.J., D.W. Fahey,
K.A. Hibbard, D.J. Dokken, B.C. Stewart, and T.K. Maycock, eds. ://science2017.globalchange.gov. doi:10.7930/J0J964J6.

4. USGCRP (U.S. Global Change Research Program). 2022. Climate science special report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, volume I. Wuebbles, D.J., D.W. Fahey, K.A. Hibbard, D.J. Dokken, B.C. Stewart, and T.K. Maycock, eds.
://science2017.globalchange.gov. doi:10.7930/J0J964J6.

5. [see full list provided below]

6. [see full list provided
below]

7. [see full list provided below]

8. AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). 2022. ALE/GAGE/AGAGE
database. Updated June 14, 2022. Accessed July 2022. ://agage.eas.gatech.edu/data_archive/global_mean.

9. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2022. Halocarbons and Other Atmospheric Trace Species group (HATS). Updated October 2022. Accessed January 2022.
://gml.noaa.gov/aftp/data/hats/Total_Cl_Br.

10. Rigby, M. 2022 update to data originally published in: Arnold, T., C.M. Harth, J. Mühle, A.J. Manning, P.K. Salameh, J. Kim, D.J. Ivy, L.P. Steele, V.V. Petrenko, J.P. Severinghaus, D. Baggenstos, and R.F. Weiss. 2013. Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements.
P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110(6):2029–2034. Data updated December 2022.

11. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 2013. Data—TOMS/SBUV TOR data products. Accessed November 2013. ://science-data.larc.nasa.gov/TOR/data.html.

12. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space
Administration). 2022. Tropospheric ozone data from AURA OMI/MLS. Accessed May 2022. ://acdb-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/cloud_slice/new_data.html.

13.NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 2022. SBUV merged ozone data set (MOD). Version 8.7. Updated May 21, 2022. Accessed May 2022.
://acdb-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/merged/index.html.

14. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.

Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases: Citations for Figures 1, 2, and 3Figure 1

Antarctic Ice Cores: approximately 805,669 BCE to 2001 CE
Bereiter, B., S. Eggleston, J. Schmitt, C. Nehrbass-Ahles, T.F. Stocker, H. Fischer, S. Kipfstuhl, and J. Chappellaz. 2015. Revision of the EPICA Dome C CO2 record from
800 to 600 kyr before present. Geophys. Res. Let. 42(2):542–549. .ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo-search/study/17975.

Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1959 CE to 2022 CE
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2022. Annual mean carbon dioxide concentrations for Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Updated March 7, 2022. Accessed March 22, 2022.
://gml.noaa.gov/ccgg/trends/data.html.

Barrow, Alaska: 1974 CE to 2022 CE
Cape Matatula, American Samoa: 1976 CE to 2022 CE
South Pole, Antarctica: 1976 CE to 2022 CE
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2022. Monthly mean carbon dioxide concentrations for Barrow, Alaska; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; and the South Pole. Updated May 3, 2022.
Accessed July 9, 2022. ://gml.noaa.gov/aftp/data/trace_gases/co2/in-situ/surface.

Cape Grim, Australia: 1977 CE to 2022 CE
CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation). 2022. Monthly mean baseline (background) carbon dioxide concentrations measured the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, Tasmania, Australia. Updated March 2022.
Accessed March 22, 2022. ://capegrim.csiro.au/GreenhouseGas/data/CapeGrim_CO2_data_download.csv (csv).

Shetland Islands, Scotland: 1993 CE to 2002 CE
Steele, L.P., P.B. Krummel, and R.L. Langenfelds. 2007. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ppmv) derived from flask air samples collected Cape Grim, Australia, and Shetland Islands,
Scotland. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Accessed January 20, 2009. ://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/trends/co2/csiro.

Lampedusa Island, Italy: 1993 CE to 2000 CE
Chamard, P., L. Ciattaglia, A. di Sarra, and F. Monteleone. 2001. Atmospheric carbon dioxide record from flask measurements Lampedusa Island. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global
change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 14, 2005. ://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/trends/co2/lampis.html.

Figure 2

EPICA Dome C, Antarctica: approximately 797,446 BCE to 1937 CELoulergue, L., A. Schilt, R. Spahni, V. Masson-Delmotte, T. Blunier, B. Lemieux, J.-M. Barnola, D. Raynaud, T.F. Stocker, and J.
Chappellaz. 2008. Orbital and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the past 800,000 years. Nature 453:383–386. .ncei.noaa.gov/access/paleo-search/study/6093.

Law Dome, Antarctica: approximately 1008 CE to 1980 CE
Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steele, R.J. Francey, and R.L. Langenfelds. 2002. Historic CH4 records from Antarctic and Greenland
ice cores, Antarctic firn data, and archived air samples from Cape Grim, Tasmania. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 13, 2005. ://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/trends/atm_meth/lawdome_meth.html.

Cape Grim, Australia: 1985 CE to 2022 CE
CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organisation). 2022. Monthly mean baseline (background) methane concentrations measured the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, Tasmania, Australia. Updated March 2022. Accessed March 22, 2022. ://capegrim.csiro.au/GreenhouseGas/data/CapeGrim_CH4_data_download.csv (csv).

Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1984 CE to 2022 CE
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration). 2022. Monthly mean CH4 concentrations for Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Updated July 30, 2022. Accessed March 22, 2022. ://gml.noaa.gov/aftp/data/trace_gases/ch4/flask/surface.

Shetland Islands, Scotland: 1993 CE to 2001 CE
Steele, L.P., P.B. Krummel, and R.L. Langenfelds. 2002. Atmospheric methane record from Shetland Islands, Scotland (October 2002 version).
In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 13, 2005. ://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/trends/atm_meth/csiro/csiro-shetlandch4.html.

Figure 3

EPICA Dome C, Antarctica: approximately 796,475 BCE to 1937 CE
Schilt, A., M. Baumgartner, T. Blunier, J.
Schwander, R. Spahni, H. Fischer, and T.F. Stocker. 2010. Glacial-interglacial and millennial scale variations in the atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration during the last 800,000 years. Quaternary Sci. Rev. 29:182–192. .ncei.noaa.gov/access/paleo-search/study/8615.

Antarctica: approximately 1903 CE to 1976 CE
Battle, M., M. Bender, T. Sowers, P. Tans, J. Butler, J.
Elkins, J. Ellis, T. Conway, N. Zhang, P. Lang, and A. Clarke. 1996. Atmospheric gas concentrations over the past century measured in air from firn the South Pole. Nature 383:231–235. Data available : ://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=797.

Cape Grim, Australia: 1979 CE to 2022 CE
CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation). 2020c. Monthly
mean baseline (background) nitrous oxide concentrations measured the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, Tasmania, Australia. Updated March 2022. Accessed March 22, 2022. ://capegrim.csiro.au/GreenhouseGas/data/CapeGrim_N2O_data_download.csv (csv).

South Pole, Antarctica: 1998 CE to 2022 CE
Barrow, Alaska: 1999 CE to 2022 CE
Mauna Loa, Hawaii:
2000 CE to 2022 CE
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2022. Monthly mean N2O concentrations for Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; and the South Pole. Accessed March 24, 2022. .esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/insitu/cats/cats_conc.html.

Which of the following most likely explains how the chromosomes circled in Figure 1?

Which of the following most likely explains how the chromosomes circled in figure 1 could cause a genetic disorder in the person from whom the cells were obtained? The extra chromosome will affect the levels of RNA transcribed from certain genes and the amount of protein produced from those genes in each cell.

Which of the following best explains the connection between energy growth and the maintenance?

Which of the following best explains the connection between energy, growth, and the maintenance of an ordered system in the experiment? Energy input from light is required for the grass to grow and maintain an ordered structure.

Which statement is the most accurate description of the reaction shown in Figure 1?

Which statement is the most accurate description of the reaction shown in Figure 1? It represents a polypeptide chain that is broken down through a hydrolysis reaction. Which of the following best describes the structures of carbohydrates?

Which of the following pathways for the transformation of cellular energy most likely evolved first?

Glycolysis is the first pathway used in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy. It was probably one of the earliest metabolic pathways to evolve and is used by nearly all of the organisms on earth.
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