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    The spark: the assassinationHow did nationalism contribute to the start of World War I?What are examples of nationalism in WW1?How did nationalism contribute to WW1 quizlet?What were the effects of nationalism in WW1?

Nationalism, the Mass Army, and Military Power

International Security

Vol. 18, No. 2 (Fall, 1993)

, pp. 80-124 (45 pages)

Published By: The MIT Press

://doi.org/10.2307/2539098

://.jstor.org/stable/2539098

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Journal Information

International Security publishes lucid, well-documented essays on all aspects of the control and use of force, from all political viewpoints. Its articles cover contemporary policy issues, and probe historical and theoretical questions behind them. Essays in International Security have defined the debate on American national security policy and have set the agenda for scholarship on international
security affairs. Readers of International Security discover new developments in: the causes and prevention of war ethnic conflict and peacekeeping post-Cold War security problems European, Asian, and regional security nuclear forces and strategy arms control and weapons proliferation post-Soviet security issues diplomatic and military history

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A. France considered Alsace and Lorraine to belong to France rather than Germany.

B. When Austria declared war on Serbia, it was also indirectly declaring war on Russia.

C. German soldiers began to occupy Belgium, which had declared its neutrality.

D. The United States sent money and supplies to its English allies.

My Answer: B

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It’s possibly the single most pondered question in history – what caused World War One? It wasn’t, like in World War Two, a case of a single belligerent pushing others to take a military stand. It didn’t have the moral vindication of resisting a tyrant.

Rather, a delicate but toxic balance of structural forces created a dry tinder that was lit by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in
Sarajevo. That sự kiện precipitated the July Crisis, which saw the major European powers hurtle toward open conflict.

The M-A-I-N acronym – militarism, alliances, imperialism and nationalism – is often used to analyse the war, and each of these reasons are cited to be the 4 main causes of World War One. It’s simplistic but provides a useful framework.

Militarism

The late nineteenth century was an era of military competition, particularly between the major European powers.
The policy of building a stronger military was judged relative to neighbours, creating a culture of paranoia that heightened the search for alliances. It was fed by the cultural belief that war is good for nations.

Germany in particular looked to expand its navy. However, the ‘naval race’ was never a real contest – the British always s maintained naval superiority.  But the British obsession with naval dominance was strong. Government rhetoric exaggerated military expansionism.
 A
simple naivety in the potential scale and bloodshed of a European war prevented several governments from checking their aggression.

Dan interviews the brilliant historian Nick Lloyd, author of The Western Front who tells a much more nuanced account of the Western Front.

Listen Now

Alliances

A web of alliances developed in Europe between 1870 and 1914, effectively creating two camps bound by commitments to maintain sovereignty or intervene militarily – the
Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance.

    The Triple Alliance of 1882 linked Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.The Triple Entente of 1907 linked France, Britain and Russia.

A historic point of conflict between Austria Hungary and Russia was over their incompatible Balkan interests, and France had a deep suspicion of Germany rooted in their defeat in the 1870 war.

The
alliance system primarily came about because after 1870 Germany, under Bismarck, set a precedent by playing its neighbours’ imperial endeavours off one another, in order to maintain a balance of power within Europe

‘Hark! hark! the dogs do bark!’, satirical map of Europe. 1914

Image Credit: Paul K, CC BY 2.0 , via Wikimedia Commons

Imperialism

Imperial competition also pushed the countries towards adopting alliances. Colonies were units of exchange that could be bargained without significantly affecting the metro-pole. They also brought nations who would otherwise not interact into conflict and agreement. For example, the Russo-Japanese War (1905) over aspirations in China, helped bring the Triple Entente into being.

It
has been suggested that Germany was motivated by imperial ambitions to invade Belgium and France. Certainly the expansion of the British and French empires, fired by the rise of industrialism and the pursuit of new markets, caused some resentment in Germany, and the pursuit of a short, aborted imperial policy in the late nineteenth century.

However the suggestion that Germany wanted to create a European empire in 1914 is not supported by the pre-war rhetoric and strategy.

Nationalism

Nationalism was also a new and powerful source of tension in Europe. It was tied to militarism, and clashed with the interests of the imperial powers in Europe. Nationalism created new areas of interest over which nations could compete.

Margaret MacMillan talks to her nephew Dan about the road to 1914. They discuss the role that masculine insecurity
played in the build up to the war and also examine the construct of and myths surrounding nationalistic feeling in the pre-war years.

Watch Now

For example, The Habsburg empire was tottering agglomeration of 11 different nationalities, with large slavic populations in Galicia and the
Balkans whose nationalist aspirations ran counter to imperial cohesion. Nationalism in the Balkan’s also piqued Russia’s historic interest in the region.

Indeed, Serbian nationalism created the trigger cause of the conflict – the assassination of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

The spark: the assassination

Ferdinand and his wife were murdered in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, a thành viên of the Bosnian Serbian nationalist terrorist organization
the ‘Black Hand Gang.’ Ferdinand’s death, which was interpreted as a product of official Serbian policy, created the July Crisis – a month of diplomatic and governmental miscalculations that saw a domino effect of war declarations initiated.

The historical dialogue on this issue is vast and distorted by substantial biases. Vague and undefined schemes of reckless expansion were imputed to the German leadership in the immediate aftermath of the war with the ‘war-guilt’ clause. The notion
that Germany was bursting with newfound strength, proud of her abilities and eager to showcase them, was overplayed.

The first page of the edition of the ‘Domenica del Corriere’, an Italian paper, with a
drawing by Achille Beltrame depicting Gavrilo Princip killing Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo

Image Credit: Achille Beltrame, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The almost laughable rationalization of British imperial power as ‘necessary’ or ‘civilizing’ didn’t translate to German imperialism, which was ‘aggressive’ and ‘expansionist.’ There is an on-going historical discussion on who if anyone was most culpable.

Blame has been directed every
single combatant one point or another, and some have said that all the major governments considered a golden opportunity for increasing popularity home.

The Schlieffen plan could be blamed for bringing Britain into the war, the scale of the war could be blamed on Russia as the first big country to mobilise, inherent rivalries between imperialism and capitalism could be blamed for polarising the combatants. AJP Taylor’s ‘timetable theory’ emphasises the delicate, highly complex plans
involved in mobilization which prompted ostensibly aggressive military preparations.

Every point has some merit, but in the end what proved most devastating was the combination of an alliance network with the widespread, misguided belief that war is good for nations, and that the best way to fight a modern war was to attack. That the war was inevitable is questionable, but certainly the notion of glorious war, of war as a good for nation-building, was strong pre-1914. By the end of the
war, it was dead.

How did nationalism contribute to the start of World War I?

Nationalism led to this situation because it was responsible for pushing countries to expand their influence in Europe. This caused tensions between the major powers of Europe. For example, there was an intense arms race and naval race between several European nations in the buildup to World War I.

What are examples of nationalism in WW1?

Both types of nationalism contributed to the outbreak of WW1. For example, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia each tried to prove their nation’s importance to the world by building up armies and weapons. Nationalism, cont. and were willing to use violence to get their way.

How did nationalism contribute to WW1 quizlet?

How was Nationalism a cause of the war? Nationalists in Serbia along with allied Russia (because they were both Slavic people) wanted Serbia to separate from Austria and create a large ‘Serbian state’. This led to the assassination of Arch-Duke, Franz Ferdinand and the eventual war.

What were the effects of nationalism in WW1?

The effects of this growing nationalism were an inflated confidence in one’s nation, its government, economy and military power. Many nationalists also became blind to the faults of their own nation.
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