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    On this page… What describes the general trend in hominid evolution?Which of the following correctly describes the trend in the evolution of the hominid jaw?Which of the following best describes trends in hominid?Which of the following trends appeared earliest in hominid evolution?

Examining the skulls of living apes and our extinct ancestors allows us to explore characteristics which reflect the evolutionary relationships in our family tree. These skulls are all casts of original fossils.

The ancestors of today’s modern apes (gorillas, orangutans, gibbons, chimpanzees and humans) first appeared in the fossil record about 27 million years ago. By
examining their skulls we can explore characteristics which reflect their evolutionary relationships.

More information on skulls

Australopithecines: hominins characterized by relatively small brains, large cheek teeth, a skeleton with some ape-like features and little evidence of culture.

Cranial capacity: the capacity or size of the brain case and therefore the brain.

Dental arcade: the shape made by
the rows of teeth in the upper jaw.

Foramen magnum: the great hole in the underside of the skull that forms a passage from the brain cavity to the spinal canal.

Homo species: hominins characterised by relatively and absolutely large brains, a modern skeleton, reduced tooth and jaw size and an involvement in cultural activities.

Inferred culture: the material evidence that indicates that a species had developed a way of living that was passed
on from one generation to another.

mya: million years ago

unifacial: having one worked side

ya: years ago

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journal article

Tooth Size and Shape and their Relevance to Studies of Hominid Evolution [and Discussion]

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

Vol. 292, No. 1057, The Emergence of Man (May 8, 1981)

, pp. 65-76 (12 pages)

Published By: Royal
Society

://.jstor.org/stable/2398644

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Abstract

Teeth have the potential to provide evidence about both the patterns of diversity of fossil hominids and the functional adaptations of early hominid taxa. Comparative studies of dental function and the direct examination of wear patterns in fossil teeth are now providing data for testing hypotheses that major differences in dietary adaptations
underlie lineage diversity in the early hominids. However, this review focuses on the contributions that dental evidence can make to hominid systematic studies. Attention is drawn to the value of tooth enamel as a morphological marker and the major contribution that teeth make to the hominid fossil sample. Systematic analysis of hominid remains must start with the identification of patterns of morphological variation. Only then can the taxonomic significance of the morphological differences be
assessed and attempts made to link designated taxa in a phylogenetic scheme. The preliminary results of a detailed metrical survey of early hominid premolar and molar teeth are presented. As part of this study cusp areas of first mandibular molars were measured by planimetry. Analysis of these data, without any prior assumptions about taxonomic groups, has demonstrated that the major axis of variation separates the pooled sample into morphological subgroups. These methods provide a systematic
and rigorous way of identifying patterns of tooth crown morphology and will allow a more objective assessment of the affinities of individual specimens. Fossil taxa are described in terms of both absolute and relative tooth size. If canine base area and molar crown area are considered there is considerable overlap between Australopithecus africanus and Australopithecus (Paranthropus) robustus whereas there is little or no overlap between the ranges of Australopithecus africanus and
Australopithecus (Paranthropus) boisei. Differences in relative tooth size among fossil taxa are taken as an example of how to attack the problem of assessing the taxonomic significance of morphological differences. Analogues from modern primates are used to derive tooth-body toàn thân size relations for three relative growth models. The results suggest that increases in body toàn thân size are usually accompanied by a more rapid rate of increase in canine size than in molar size. This suggests that the relatively
smaller canines of the ‘robust’ australopithecines are not the result of simple scaling, but represent the result of selection against an allometric trend. Preliminary results of a survey of the subocclusal morphology of fossil teeth are presented to indicate the potential of radiographic studies and to demonstrate that changes in root morphology can be correlated with crown shape and relative size.

Publisher Information

The Royal Society is a self-governing Fellowship of many of the world’s most distinguished scientists drawn from all areas of science, engineering and medicine, and is the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence. The Society’s fundamental purpose, reflected in its founding Charters of the 1660s, is to recognise, promote, and tư vấn excellence in science and to encourage the development and use of science for the benefit of humanity. The Society has played a part in some of the most
fundamental, significant, and life-changing discoveries in scientific history and Royal Society scientists continue to make outstanding contributions to science in many research areas.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences © 1981 Royal Society
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What describes the general trend in hominid evolution?

Hominin evolution is characterized by two main trends, transition to bipedality and increase in brain size. Fossil evidence shows that both trends had a major impact on the structure and function of the hominin skull.

Which of the following correctly describes the trend in the evolution of the hominid jaw?

Which of the following correctly describes the evolutionistic view of the trend in the evolution of the hominid jaw that took place over millions of years, from early ancestors to modern humans? The jaw became less rectangular and more arched.

Which of the following best describes trends in hominid evolution that took place over millions of years, from early ancestors to modern humans? Their jaw became more parabolic in shape, their gestation period increased, and they evolved to walk upright.

Which of the following trends appeared earliest in hominid evolution? The ability to walk upright on two legs. had to occur for humans to be mobile and eyesight to improve.
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