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Having a diversity of skills and ideas within a group often enriches the group process and can improve the final product. However, working with others different from ourselves can be a challenge. One way to structure group functioning and benefit from one another’s strengths is to assign roles to
each thành viên of the group. These team roles can be assigned based on individuals’ strengths or rotated periodically to increase each thành viên’s understanding of the roles and of themselves as team members. There are four fundamental roles to consider: leader/facilitator, arbitrator/monitor, notetaker/time keeper, and devil’s advocate. For larger groups, some of these roles can be divided between two students (see notes below).

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    keeperDevil’s advocateWhat are the functions of small groups?Which of the following is a characteristic of a small group?Which of the following is considered a small group?Which is a characteristic of small groups quizlet?


    Clarifies the aims of the group
    and helps the group to set sub-goals the beginning of each meeting. Sub-goals should serve as an agenda of issues that need to be addressed during the meeting.Makes sure that all group members understand the concepts and the group’s conclusions.Starts the meetings, introduces each topic, and keeps the group on task and oriented towards its goals.Ensures that the group completes its tasks before deadlines.

Typical phrases:

    “Thanks for
    your contribution, Bill. What do you think, Mary?””From what I’m hearing, it appears that the key issues are A, B, and C. Why don’t we start by discussing A, if that is agreeable to everyone?””So, it appears that we are all agreed that …”


    Observes group functioning carefully and initiates regular discussions on group climate and process, especially if he or she senses tension or conflict
    brewing.During disagreements or conflicts, clarifies the arguments and proposes suggestions for resolving dispute.Ensures that all group members have a chance to participate and learn; may elicit comments from members if they are not participating.Acts as a cheerleader for the group whenever possible, praising members for work well done.

Note: For larger groups the role of “encourager” could be done by a different student.


    “We haven’t heard much during our meeting from you, John. Do you have any thoughts?” “It might be helpful if you backed off a bit, Kate, so we can hear what Doug has to say.””I’m sensing a bit of tension among us over this decision; I think we should get our disagreements out into the open.””I think we can feel really good about what we’ve accomplished to this point. Especially nice work on the project outline, Kim!”


    Takes notes during meetings to keep a record of what has been decided, tasks that have been assigned, when meetings are scheduled, etc.Summarizes discussions and decisions for the rest of the group. Distributes a summary of each meeting to all group members.Presents group material to the rest of the class/supervisor.Keeps track of time during meetings to avoid spending excessive time on one topic. This is best handled by deciding how much time will be allocated
    to each issue in the agenda, and letting everyone know when this time is up. It is also useful to point out when time is almost up so that issues can be wrapped up appropriately.

Note: For larger groups, the roles of notetaker and time keeper could be fulfilled by two students.

Typical phrases:

    “Hold on, please, I just need to get this down before we move on.””I’ll send you an updated version of our report tomorrow, along with a
    summary of today’s meeting.””We’ve spent about 15 of the 20 minutes we allocated to this topic, so we’ve got about 5 more minutes to sort it out.”

Devil’s advocate

    Remains on guard against “groupthink” scenarios (i.e., when the pressure to reach the group goal is so great that the individual members surrender their own opinions to avoid conflict and view issues solely from the group’s perspective).Ensures that all arguments have been heard, and looks
    for holes in the group’s decision-making process, in case there is something overlooked.Keeps his or her mind open to problems, possibilities, and opposing ideas.Serves as a quality-control person who double-checks every detail to make sure errors have not been made and searches for aspects of the work that need more attention. Keeps an eye out for mistakes, especially those that may fall between the responsibilities of two group members.

Note: For
larger groups, this role of devil’s advocate could be divided into two roles: devil’s advocate and quality control.

Typical phrases:

    “Let’s give Mike’s idea a chance.””OK, we’ve decided to go with plan C, but I noticed that we still haven’t dealt with the same problem that plan A didn’t address. What can we do to solve this?”

This Creative Commons license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon our work non-commercially, as long as they credit us and indicate if changes were made. Use this citation format: Group Roles: Maximizing Group
Performance. Centre for Teaching Excellence, University of Waterloo.

What are the functions of small groups?

Advantages of small groups include shared decision making, shared resources, synergy, and exposure to diversity. It is within small groups that most of the decisions that guide our country, introduce local laws, and influence our family interactions are made.

Which of the following is a characteristic of a small group?

For our purposes, small groups have three primary qualities: identity, goals and interdependence. Furthermore, a small group needs least three members and possibly up to as many as 12 members, so long as the group is small enough to permit all members to freely speak and listen.

Which of the following is considered a small group?

A small group requires a minimum of three people (because two people would be a pair or dyad), but the upper range of group size is contingent on the purpose of the group. When groups grow beyond fifteen to twenty members, it becomes difficult to consider them a small group based on the previous definition.

Which is a characteristic of small groups quizlet?

Which of these is a characteristic of small groups? They have organizing rules.
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