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Primary sources

A primary source provides direct or firsthand evidence about an sự kiện, object, person, or work of art. Primary sources include historical and legal documents, eyewitness accounts, results of experiments, statistical data, pieces of creative writing, audio and video recordings, speeches, and art objects. Interviews, surveys, fieldwork, and Internet communications via email, blogs, listservs, and newsgroups are also
primary sources. In the natural and social sciences, primary sources are often empirical studies—research where an experiment was performed or a direct observation was made. The results of empirical studies are typically found in scholarly articles or papers delivered conferences.

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    Primary sourcesSecondary SourcesSecondary SourcesPrimary vs. Secondary InformationExamples of Primary and Secondary SourcesMore on Primary SourcesThis Resource is Included in These PlaylistsStill Have
    Questions?What type of source is original research?Is original research a primary or secondary source?What kind of source is reports?Is original research data a primary source?

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources describe, discuss, interpret, comment upon, analyze, evaluate, summarize, and process primary sources. Secondary source materials can be articles in
newspapers or popular magazines, book or movie reviews, or articles found in scholarly journals that discuss or evaluate someone else’s original research. 

Definition courtesy of Ithaca College Library Research Guide, Primary vs Secondary section.

Primary Sources

In the sciences, primary sources are very specific.  Primary source documents in the sciences focus on original research, ideas, or findings and are most often published in scholarly journals or presented academic conferences.  These articles or presentations mark the first publication of such research; they present new data and detail the researcher’s methodology and

Primary sources are factual, not interpretive, and include sources such as

    published results of research studies, experiments, clinical trialsproceedings of conferences and meetingspatentstechnical reports

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources in the sciences analyze and interpret primary research results.  These sources usually have the goal of summarizing, explaining, or
providing an overview of a topic, and can help place the research in context.  Secondary literature is often published in books, magazines, or journals.

Secondary sources include sources such as

    review articles, which summarize previously published studiesarticles that discuss the significance of published research or experimentsanalyses of clinical trials

A primary source is an original document containing firsthand information about a topic.

Different fields of study may use different types of primary sources. Common examples
of a primary source are:

    AutobiographiesDiariesEyewitness AccountsInterview TranscriptsLegal DocumentsLettersOriginal works of artPhotographs of the topicOriginal ResearchVideo Footage of the topic eventWorks of literature

Secondary Sources

A secondary source contains commentary on or discussion about a primary source. The most important
feature of secondary sources is that they offer an interpretation of information gathered from primary sources.

Common examples of a secondary source are:

    BiographiesIndexes, Abstracts, Bibliographies (used to locate a secondary source)Journal ArticlesLiterary CriticismMonographs written about the topicReviews of books, movies, musical recordings,. works of art, etc.

Primary vs. Secondary Information

Primary sources are first hand sources; secondary sources are second-hand sources. For example, suppose there had been a car accident. The description of the accident which a witness gives to the police is a primary source because it comes from someone who was actually there the time. The next day’s newspaper story is a secondary source because the reporter who wrote the story did not actually witness the sự kiện.  The reporter is
presenting a way of understanding the accident or an interpretation.

*From North Park University, History Department

However, the distinctions between primary and secondary sources can be ambiguous. It is important to remember that you cannot determine whether a source is primary or secondary solely based on the document type. An individual document may be a primary source in one context and a secondary source in another. For example, the movie Love,
Marilyn is a secondary source when the topic is Marilyn Monroe; it would be considered a primary source if the topic of research was the works of Liz Garbus (the film’s director).

Additionally, time can be a defining element. For example, a recent newspaper article is not usually a primary source; but a newspaper article from the 1860’s may be a primary source for United States Civil War research.

*From CBB Library and IT Consortium

Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources

Sometimes, the same source might be a primary source for one research paper and a secondary source for another. It all depends on the relationship of the source to your research question. For example, if you are researching Franklin Roosevelt’s life, the book No ordinary time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The home front in World War II by Doris Kearns Goodwin would be a secondary source. If you were researching
the literary style of Ms. Goodwin, it would be a primary source.

*From Joyner Library, East Carolina University

Primary Source
Secondary Source

Original artwork
Article critiquing the piece of art

Slave diary
Book about the Underground Railroad


Treatise on a particular genre of poetry
Political Science

Essay on Native American land rights

Videotape of a performance
Biography of a playwright

More on Primary Sources

The Primary Sources research guide features even more tips for identifying and finding primary sources.

Access the Guide

This Resource is Included in These Playlists

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What type of source is original research?

Primary Sources
It is information that is shown for the first time or original materials on which other research is based.

Is original research a primary or secondary source?

Primary sources include:
Original research – results of experiments, interviews, questionnaires, studies, surveys, archaeological digs. Personal works – diaries, identification papers, journals, letters, memoirs and autobiographies (not biographies), speeches, theses (reporting original research)

What kind of source is reports?

Primary sources can include: Texts of laws and other original documents. Newspaper reports, by reporters who witnessed an sự kiện or who quote people who did. Speeches, diaries, letters and interviews – what the people involved said or wrote.

Is original research data a primary source?

Some types of source are nearly always primary: works of art and literature, raw statistical data, official documents and records, and personal communications (e.g. letters, interviews). If you use one of these in your research, it is probably a primary source.
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