Mẹo về What are examples of the cardinal principles of radiation protection select all that apply Đầy đủ 2022

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Ionising radiation can trigger both
deterministic and stochastic effects.
Deterministic effects occur only above the
threshold value of a
dose. There is no
threshold value for
stochastic effects.

The aim of
radiation protection is to prevent reliably the
deterministic effects of radiation and to reduce the risk of
stochastic effects to a reasonably achievable level. The
dose limit values are set so that deterministic effects are ruled out.

In order to keep the risk of stochastic damage from
ionising radiation as low as possible, three general principles have been set out in
radiation protection for dealing with
ionising radiation. These principles are based on recommendations from the International
Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The German Radiation Protection Act and the
European Directive 2013/59/Euratom make these principles legally binding:

JustificationDose limitationOptimisationLegal requirement for justification

Every new application of
ionising radiation or each new use of radioactive materials by man must be justified in advance. This legal requirement for justification also applies when, due to new activities, people are
occupationally exposed to existing, mostly natural radiation an increased level (for example cosmic radiation during flights or radon in mines or waterworks).

The legal requirement for
justification means that new activities are permitted only when they are associated with a reasonable benefit for the individual and for society. In this case, “reasonable” means that the benefit outweighs any health detriment possibly caused by the activity. The legal requirement for justification also means that existing activities are reviewed in case of significant new findings.

In medicine, where
ionising radiation is used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, we speak of the
justifying indication.

The benefit and the possible damage cannot be determined objectively in each case. Therefore, it may not be easy sometimes to justify new activities.

Legal requirement for
dose limitation

Doses of radiation that people are subjected to during justified activities must not exceed certain limit values
(dose limitation). Different limit values apply for the general population and for persons occupationally exposed to radiation.

Limit values for the population

The limit values for the population determine
the maximum total radiation an individual person may receive from justified activities (for example due to the operation of nuclear power plants). These limit values are frequently underpinned by further limit values for certain exposure pathways. Here, an exposure pathway describes the ways that people can be exposed to ionising radiation:

    by inhalationby intake
    through food (ingestion) orexternally through ambient radiation.

Limit values for certain exposure pathways ensure that the limit values for the effective dose and for the organ
equivalent doses are strictly adhered to and that one exposure pathway does not determine the entire exposure.

Limit values for persons occupationally exposed to radiation

For
occupational radiation exposure there are different limit values for

    the whole body toàn thân toàn thân and additionally for body toàn thân toàn thân organs,different periods (month, year, career),different
    groups of people (adolescents, adults, women of child-bearing age, pregnant women).

However, there are no limit values for medical radiation exposure,
i.e. for diagnostics or therapy. Here, justifying indication by the specialist doctor and the legal requirement for optimisation apply. Using diagnostic reference values, a guide value is given which – considering the individual patient’s condition – should not be reached or be adhered to as closely as possible.

Legal requirement for optimisation

If an activity that is connected with
radiation exposure and
contamination is justified, the aforementioned principle of optimisation requires that any unnecessary
radiation exposure and
contamination be avoided.

Optimisation requires that

    the likelihood of exposure,the number of exposed persons andthe
    individual dose affecting a person

are kept as low as reasonably achievable (so-called
“ALARA principle”: As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The current technical state of knowledge as well as economic and social factors
are to be considered.

The legal requirement for optimisation also applies when currently effective limit values are adhered to. In this case, according to the ALARA principle, exposure must be kept as far below the
respective limit value as possible.

State of 2022.06.25

What are examples of the cardinal principles of radiation protection?

To do this, you can use three basic protective measures in radiation safety: time, distance, and shielding.

What is cardinal principle radiation?

For reducing radiation exposure, there are 3 principals: time, distance, and shielding.

What are 4 ways people are protected from radiation?

Keeping the time of exposure to a minimum, Maintaining distance from the source, When appropriate, placing a shield between yourself and the source, and. Protecting yourself against radioactive contamination by using proper protective clothing.

What are the types of radiation protection?

3 Different Types of Radiation Shielding Materials. Traditional Lead Shielding.. Lead Composite Shielding.. Lead-Free Shielding.. Which Material Is The Best To Use?.
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ALARA
Radiation Safety

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