## Thủ Thuật về Can I append a list to a list? Mới nhất Mới Nhất

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Python lists
Python list definition
Python simple list
Python list initialization
Python list function
Python list operations
Python sequence functions
Removing elements from Python list
Python modifying list elements
Python copying lists
Python indexing list elements
Python slicing lists
Traversing Python lists
Python counting list elements
Python nested lists
Python sorting lists
Python reversing list elements
Python list comprehensions
Python map and filter functions

In this part of the Python programming tutorial, we cover Python lists in more detail.

Python list definition

A list is an ordered collection of values. It can contain various types of values. A list is a mutable container. This means that we can add values, delete values, or modify existing values.

Python list represents a mathematical concept of a finite sequence. Values of a list are called items or elements of the list. A list can contain the same value multiple times. Each occurrence is considered a distinct item.

Python simple list

List elements can be accessed by their index. The first element has index 0, the last one has index -1.

simple.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# simple.py

nums = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

print(nums)

print(nums[-1])

print(nums)

This is a simple list having five elements. The list is delimited by square brackets []. The elements of a list are separated by a comma character. The contents of a list are printed to the console.

nums = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

The right side of the assignment is a Python list literal. It creates a list containing five elements.

\$ ./simple.py

1

5

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Lists can contain elements of various data types.

various_types.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# various_types.py

class Being:

pass

objects = [1, -2, 3.4, None, False, [1, 2], “Python”, (2, 3), Being(), ]

print(objects)

In the example, we create an objects list. It contains numbers, a boolean value, another list, a string, a tuple, a custom object, and a dictionary.

\$ ./various_types.py

[1, -2, 3.4, None, False, [1, 2], ‘Python’, (2, 3),

, ]

Python list initialization

Sometimes we need to initialize a list in advance to have a particular number of elements.

initialization.py#!/usr/bin/env python

n1 = [0 for i in range(15)]

n2 =  * 15

print(n1)

print(n2)

n1[0:10] =  * 10

print(n1)

In this example we initialize two lists using a list comprehension and a * operator.

n1 = [0 for i in range(15)]

n2 =  * 15

These two lists are initialized to fifteen zeros.

n1[0:10] =  * 10

First ten values are replaced with 10s.

\$ ./initialization.py

[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]

[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]

[10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0]

Python list function

The list function creates a list from an iterable object. An iterable may be either a sequence, a container that supports iteration, or an iterator object. If no parameter is specified, a new empty list is created.

list_fun.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# list_fun.py

a = []

b = list()

print(a == b)

print(list((1, 2, 3)))

print(list(“ZetCode”))

print(list([‘Ruby’, ‘Python’, ‘Perl’]))

In the example, we create an empty list, a list from a tuple, a string, and another list.

a = []

b = list()

These are two ways to create an empty list.

print(a == b)

The line prints True. This confirms that a and b are equal.

print(list((1, 2, 3)))

We create a list from a Python tuple.

print(list(“ZetCode”))

This line produces a list from a string.

print(list([‘Ruby’, ‘Python’, ‘Perl’]))

Finally, we create a copy of a list of strings.

\$ ./list_fun.py

True

[1, 2, 3]

[‘Z’, ‘e’, ‘t’, ‘C’, ‘o’, ‘d’, ‘e’]

[‘Ruby’, ‘Python’, ‘Perl’]

This is example output.

Python list operations

The following code shows some basic list operations.

list_oper.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# list_oper.py

n1 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

n2 = [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]

print(n1 == n2)

print(n1 + n2)

print(n1 * 3)

print(2 in n1)

print(2 in n2)

We define two lists of integers. We use a few operators on these lists.

print(n1 == n2)

The contents of the lists are compared with the == operator. The line prints False since the elements are different.

print(n1 + n2)

The n1 and n2 lists are added to form a new list. The new list has all elements of both the lists.

print(n1 * 3)

We use the multiplication operator on the list. It repeats the elements n times; three times in our case.

print(2 in n1)

We use the in operator to find out whether the value is present in the list. It returns a boolean True or False.

\$ ./lists.py

False

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

True

False

Running the example gives this output.

Python sequence functions

Sequence functions can be used on any sequence types, including lists.

sequence_funs.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# sequence_funs.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

print(“There are 0 items”.format(len(n)))

print(“Maximum is 0”.format(max(n)))

print(“Minimum is 0”.format(min(n)))

print(“The sum of values is 0”.format(sum(n)))

In the example above, we have four functions: len, max, min, and sum.

print(“There are 0 items”.format(len(n)))

The len function returns the size of the list. The number of elements of the list.

print(“Maximum is 0”.format(max(n)))

print(“Minimum is 0”.format(min(n)))

The max and min functions return the maximum and the minimum of the list.

print(“The sum of values is 0”.format(sum(n)))

The sum function calculates the sum of the numbers of the n list.

\$ ./sequence_funs.py

There are 8 items

Maximum is 8

Minimum is 1

The sum of values is 36

This section will show how elements are added to a Python list.

langs = []

langs.append(“Python”)

langs.append(“Perl”)

print(langs)

langs.insert(0, “PHP”)

langs.insert(2, “Lua”)

print(langs)

langs.extend((“JavaScript”, “ActionScript”))

print(langs)

We have three methods to add new elements to a list: append, insert, and extend.

langs = []

An empty list is created.

langs.append(“Python”)

langs.append(“Perl”)

The append method adds an item the end of the list; we append two strings.

langs.insert(0, “PHP”)

langs.insert(2, “Lua”)

The insert method places an element a specific position indicated by the index number. The “PHP” string is inserted the first position, the “Lua” string the third position. Note that list index numbers start from zero.

langs.extend((“JavaScript”, “ActionScript”))

The extend method adds a sequence of values to the end of a list. In our case two strings of a Python tuple are appended the end of our list.

[‘Python’, ‘Perl’]

[‘PHP’, ‘Python’, ‘Lua’, ‘Perl’]

[‘PHP’, ‘Python’, ‘Lua’, ‘Perl’, ‘JavaScript’, ‘ActionScript’]

This is example output.

IndexError

The IndexError is raised when a list subscript is out of range.

index_error.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# index_error.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

try:

n = 10

n = 60

except IndexError as e:

print(e)

In the script we have defined a list of five integers. These elements have indexes 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4. Using a bigger index leads to an error.

n = 60

Index 6 is out of range for our list. An IndexError is thrown.

except IndexError as e:

print(e)

We catch the error using the except clause. In the body toàn thân toàn thân of the clause, we print the error message.

\$ ./index_error.py

list assignment index out of range

This is example output.

TypeError

If an index of a tuple is not a plain integer a TypeError is thrown.

type_error.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# type_error.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

try:

print(n)

print(n[‘2’])

except TypeError as e:

print(“Error in file 0”.format( __file__))

print(“Message: 0”.format(e))

This example throws a TypeError.

print(n[‘2’])

A list index must be an integer. Other types end in error.

except TypeError as e:

print(“Error in file 0”.format( __file__))

print(“Message: 0”.format(e))

In the except block, we print the name of the file, where the exception has occurred and the message string.

\$ ./typeerror.py

2

Error in file ./typeerror.py

Message: list indices must be integers, not str

This is example output.

Removing elements from Python list

Previously we have added items to a list. Now we be removing them from a list.

removing.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# removing.py

langs = [“Python”, “Ruby”, “Perl”, “Lua”, “JavaScript”]

print(langs)

lang = langs.pop(3)

print(“0 was removed”.format(lang))

lang = langs.pop()

print(“0 was removed”.format(lang))

print(langs)

langs.remove(“Ruby”)

print(langs)

The pop method removes and returns an element with a specified index or the last element if the index number is not given. The remove method removes a particular item from a list.

lang = langs.pop(3)

print(“0 was removed”.format(lang))

We take away the element which has index 3. The pop method returns the name of the removed element; it is printed to the console.

lang = langs.pop()

print(“0 was removed”.format(lang))

The last element from the list, namely “JavaScript” string, is removed from the list.

langs.remove(“Ruby”)

This line removes a “Ruby” string from the langs list.

[‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘Perl’, ‘Lua’, ‘JavaScript’]

Lua was removed

JavaScript was removed

[‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘Perl’]

[‘Python’, ‘Perl’]

From the ouput of the script we can see the effects of the described methods.

A del keyword can be used to delete list elements as well.

removing2.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# removing2.py

langs = [“Python”, “Ruby”, “Perl”, “Lua”, “JavaScript”]

print(langs)

del langs

print(langs)

#del langs

del langs[:]

print(langs)

We have a list of strings. We use the del keyword to delete list elements.

del langs

We remove the second string from the list. It is the “Ruby” string.

#del langs

We can delete only existing elements. If we uncomment the code line, we receive an IndexError message.

del langs[:]

Here we remove all the remaining elements from the list. The [:] characters refer to all items of a list.

\$ ./removing2.py

[‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘Perl’, ‘Lua’, ‘JavaScript’]

[‘Python’, ‘Perl’, ‘Lua’, ‘JavaScript’]

[]

Python modifying list elements

In the next example we be modifying list elements.

modifying.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# modifying.py

langs = [“Python”, “Ruby”, “Perl”]

langs.pop(2)

langs.insert(2, “PHP”)

print(langs)

langs = “Perl”

print(langs)

In the example we modify the third element of the langs list twice.

langs.pop(2)

langs.insert(2, “PHP”)

One way to modify an element is to remove it and place a different element the same position.

langs = “Perl”

The other method is more straightforward. We assign a new element a given position. Now there is “Perl” string the third position again.

\$ ./modifying.py

[‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘PHP’]

[‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘Perl’]

Python copying lists

There are several ways how we can copy a list in Python. We will mention a few of them.

copying.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# copying.py

import copy

w = [“Python”, “Ruby”, “Perl”]

c1 = w[:]

c2 = list(w)

c3 = copy.copy(w)

c4 = copy.deepcopy(w)

c5 = [e for e in w]

c6 = []

for e in w:

c6.append(e)

c7 = []

c7.extend(w)

print(c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, c6, c7)

We have a list of three strings. We make a copy of the list seven times.

import copy

We import the copy module which has two methods for copying.

c1 = w[:]

A list is copied using the slice syntax.

c2 = list(w)

The list function creates a copy of a list when it takes a list as a parameter.

c3 = copy.copy(w)

c4 = copy.deepcopy(w)

The copy method produces a shallow copy of a list. The deepcopy produces a deep copy of a list.

c5 = [e for e in w]

A copy of a string is created using list comprehension.

c6 = []

for e in w:

c6.append(e)

A copy created by a for loop.

c7 = []

c7.extend(w)

The extend method can be used to create a copy too.

\$ ./copying.py

[‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘Perl’] [‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘Perl’] [‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘Perl’]

[‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘Perl’] [‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘Perl’] [‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘Perl’]

[‘Python’, ‘Ruby’, ‘Perl’]

Seven copies of a string list were created using different techniques.

Python indexing list elements

Elements in a Python list can be accessed by their index. Index numbers are integers; they start from zero. Indexes can be negative; negative indexes refer to elements from the end of the list. The first item in a list has index 0, the last item has -1.

indexing.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# indexing.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

print(n)

print(n[-1])

print(n[-2])

print(n)

print(n)

We can access an element of a list by its index. The index is placed between the square brackets [] after the name of the list.

print(n)

print(n[-1])

print(n[-2])

These three lines print the first, the last and the last but one item of the list.

print(n)

print(n)

The two lines print the fourth and sixth element of the list.

\$ ./indexing.py

1

8

7

4

6

This is example output.

The index(e, start, end) method looks for a particular element and returns its lowest index. The start and end are optional parameters that limit the search to given boundaries.

indexing2.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# indexing2.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2]

print(n.index(1))

print(n.index(2))

print(n.index(1, 1))

print(n.index(2, 2))

print(n.index(1, 2, 5))

print(n.index(3, 4, 8))

A code example with the index method.

print(n.index(1))

print(n.index(2))

These two lines print the indexes of the leftmost 1, 2 values of the n list.

print(n.index(1, 1))

print(n.index(2, 2))

Here we search for values 1 and 2 after specified indexes.

print(n.index(1, 2, 5))

Here we search for value 1 between values with indexes 2 and 5.

\$ ./indexing2.py

0

1

4

5

4

6

This is example output.

Python slicing lists

List slicing is an operation that extracts certain elements from a list and forms them into another list. Possibly with different number of indices and different index ranges.

The syntax for list slicing is as follows:

[start:end:step]

The start, end, step parts of the syntax are integers. Each of them is optional. They can be both positive and negative. The value having the end index is not included in the slice.

slice.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# slice.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

print(n[1:5])

print(n[:5])

print(n[1:])

print(n[:])

We create four slices from a list of eight integers.

print(n[1:5])

The first slice has values with indexes 1, 2, 3, and 4. The newly formed list is [2, 3, 4, 5].

print(n[:5])

If the start index is omitted then a default value is assumed, which is 0. The slice is [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].

print(n[1:])

If the end index is omitted, the -1 default value is taken. In such a case a slice takes all values to the end of the list.

print(n[:])

Even both indexes can be left out. This syntax creates a copy of a list.

\$ ./slice.py

[2, 3, 4, 5]

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

The third index in a slice syntax is the step. It allows us to take every n-th value from a list.

slice2.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# slice2.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

print(n[1:9:2])

print(n[::2])

print(n[::1])

print(n[1::3])

We form four new lists using the step value.

print(n[1:9:2])

Here we create a slice having every second element from the n list, starting from the second element, ending in the eighth element. The new list has the following elements: [2, 4, 6, 8].

print(n[::2])

Here we build a slice by taking every second value from the beginning to the end of the list.

print(n[::1])

This creates a copy of a list.

print(n[1::3])

The slice has every third element, starting from the second element to the end of the list.

\$ ./slice2.py

[2, 4, 6, 8]

[1, 3, 5, 7]

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

[2, 5, 8]

Indexes can be negative numbers. Negative indexes refer to values from the end of the list. The last element has index -1, the last but one has index -2 etc. Indexes with lower negative numbers must come first in the syntax. This means that we write [-6, -2] instead of [-2, -6]. The latter returns an empty list.

slice3.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# slice3.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

print(n[-4:-1])

print(n[-1:-4])

print(n[-5:])

print(n[-6:-2:2])

print(n[::-1])

In this script, we form five lists. We also use negative index numbers.

print(n[-4:-1])

print(n[-1:-4])

The first line returns [5, 6, 7], the second line returns an empty list. Lower indexes must come before higher indexes.

print(n[::-1])

This creates a reversed list.

\$ ./slice3.py

[5, 6, 7]

[]

[4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

[3, 5]

[8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1]

The above mentioned syntax can be used in assignments. There must be an iterable on the right side of the assignment.

slice4.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# slice4.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

n = 10

n[1:3] = 20, 30

n[3::1] = 40, 50, 60, 70, 80

print(n)

We have a list of eight integers. We use the slice syntax to replace the elements with new values.

Traversing Python lists

This section will point out three basic ways to traverse a list in Python.

traverse.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# traverse.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

for e in n:

print(e, end=” “)

print()

The first one is the most straightforward way to traverse a list.

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

We have a numerical list. There are five integers in the list.

for e in n:

print(e, end=” “)

Using the for loop, we go through the list one by one and print the current element to the console.

\$ ./traverse.py

1 2 3 4 5

This is the output of the script. The integers are printed to the terminal.

The second example is a bit more verbose.

traverse2.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# traverse2.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

i = 0

s = len(n)

while i < s:

print(n[i], end=” “)

i = i + 1

print()

We are traversing the list using the while loop.

i = 0

l = len(n)

First, we need to define a counter and find out the size of the list.

while i < s:

print(n[i], end=” “)

i = i + 1

With the help of these two numbers, we go through the list and print each element to the terminal.

The enumerate built-in function gives us both the index and the value of a list in a loop.

traverse3.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# traverse3.py

n = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

print(list(enumerate(n)))

for e, i in enumerate(n):

print(“n = 1”.format(e, i))

In the example, we print the values and the indexes of the values.

\$ ./traverse3.py

[(0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5)]

n = 1

n = 2

n = 3

n = 4

n = 5

Running the script.

Python counting list elements

Sometimes it is important to count list elements. For this, Python has the count method.

counting.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# counting.py

n = [1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5]

print(n.count(4))

print(n.count(1))

print(n.count(2))

print(n.count(6))

In this example, we count the number of occurrences of a few numbers in the n list.

n = [1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5]

We have a list of integer numbers. Integers 1 and 4 are present multiple times.

print(n.count(4))

print(n.count(1))

print(n.count(2))

print(n.count(6))

Using the count method, we find out the occurrence of 4, 1, 2, and 6 numbers.

\$ ./counting.py

3

2

1

0

Number 4 is present 3 times, 1 twice, 2 once, and 6 is not present in the list.

Python nested lists

It is possible to nest lists into another lists. With a nested list a new dimension is created. To access nested lists one needs additional square brackets [].

nested.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# nested.py

nums = [[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]]

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(len(nums))

In the example, we have three nested lists having two elements each.

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

Three nested lists of the nums list are printed to the console.

print(nums)

print(nums)

Here we print the two elements of the first nested list. The nums refers to the first nested list; the nums refers to the first element of the first nested list, namely 1.

print(len(nums))

The line prints 3. Each nested list is counted as one element. Its inner elements are not taken into account.

\$ ./nested.py

[1, 2]

[3, 4]

[5, 6]

1

2

3

6

3

This is example output.

The second example has additional dimensions.

nested2.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# nested2.py

nums = [[1, 2, [3, 4, [5, 6]]]]

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

In the example, the [5, 6] list is nested into [3, 4, …] list, the [3, 4, [4, 6]] is nested into the [1, 2, …] list which is finally an element of the nums list.

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

These three lines print the nested lists to the console.

print(nums)

print(nums)

print(nums)

Here three elements are accessed. Additional square brackets [] are needed when referring to inner lists.

\$ ./nested2.py

[1, 2, [3, 4, [5, 6]]]

[3, 4, [5, 6]]

[5, 6]

1

4

5

This is example output.

Python sorting lists

In this section we sort list elements. Python has a built-in list method sort and sorted function for doing sorting.

sorting.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# sorting.py

n = [3, 4, 7, 1, 2, 8, 9, 5, 6]

print(n)

n.sort()

print(n)

n.sort(reverse=True)

print(n)

In the code example, we have a list of unsorted integers. We sort the elements using the sort method. The method sorts the elements in-place; the original list is modified.

n.sort()

The sort method sorts the elements in ascending order.

n.sort(reverse=True)

With the reverse parameter set to True, the list is sorted in a descending order.

\$ ./sorting.py

[3, 4, 7, 1, 2, 8, 9, 5, 6]

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

[9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1]

In the output we can see the original list, the sorted list in ascending and descending orders.

If we do not want to change the original list, we can use the sorted function. This function creates a new sorted list.

sorting2.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# sorting2.py

n = [3, 4, 1, 7, 2, 5, 8, 6]

print(n)

print(sorted(n))

print(n)

In the example, we use the sorted function to sort the elements of a list.

\$ ./sorting2.py

[3, 4, 1, 7, 2, 5, 8, 6]

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

[3, 4, 1, 7, 2, 5, 8, 6]

From the output of the script we can see that the original list is not modified.

The sort method has an optional key parameter. The parameter specifies a function to be called on each list element prior to making comparisons.

sorting3.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# sorting3.py

words = [“big”, “Blue”, “seven”, “glass”,

“Green”, “after”, “Anctartica”]

words.sort()

print(words)

words.sort(key=str.lower)

print(words)

The example produces a case-sensitive and case-insensitive string comparison.

words.sort(key=str.lower)

To create a case-insensitive comparison, we add the str.lower function to the key parameter.

\$ ./sorting3.py

[‘Anctartica’, ‘Blue’, ‘Green’, ‘after’, ‘big’, ‘glass’, ‘seven’]

[‘after’, ‘Anctartica’, ‘big’, ‘Blue’, ‘glass’, ‘Green’, ‘seven’]

This is example output.

We need to do additional work if we want to sort Unicode strings.

sorting_locale.py#!/usr/bin/env python

import locale

from functools import cmp_to_key

w = [u’zem’, u’štebot’, u’rum’, u’železo’, u’prameň’, u”sob”]

locale.setlocale(locale.LC_COLLATE, (‘sk_SK’, ‘UTF8’))

w.sort(key=cmp_to_key(locale.strcoll))

for e in w:

print(e)

We have a list of six unicode strings. We change the locale settings to sort the strings according to current language option.

import locale

from functools import cmp_to_key

We import the locale module and the cmp_to_key conversion function.

w = [u’zem’, u’štebot’, u’rum’, u’železo’, u’prameň’, u”sob”]

This is a list of six strings. The strings are in Slovak language and have some diacritical marks. They play role in sorting the characters correctly.

locale.setlocale(locale.LC_COLLATE, (‘sk_SK’, ‘UTF8’))

We set the locale settings for the Slovak language.

w.sort(key=cmp_to_key(locale.strcoll))

We sort the list. The locale.strcoll compares two strings according to the current LC_COLLATE setting. The cmp_to_key function transform an old-style comparison function to a key-function.

for e in w:

print(e)

We print the sorted words to the console.

\$ ./sorting_locale.py

prameň

rum

sob

štebot

zem

železo

The elements were correctly sorted. The specifics of the Slovak alphabet were taken into account.

Python reversing list elements

We can reverse elements in a list in a few ways in Python. Reversing elements should not be confused with sorting in a reverse way.

reversing.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# reversing.py

a1 = [“bear”, “lion”, “tiger”, “eagle”]

a2 = [“bear”, “lion”, “tiger”, “eagle”]

a3 = [“bear”, “lion”, “tiger”, “eagle”]

a1.reverse()

print(a1)

it = reversed(a2)

r = list()

for e in it:

r.append(e)

print(r)

print(a3[::-1])

In the example, we have three identical string lists. We reverse the elements in three different ways.

a1.reverse()

The first way is to use the reverse method.

it = reversed(a2)

r = list()

for e in it:

r.append(e)

The reversed function returns a reverse iterator. We use the iterator in a for loop and create a new reversed list.

print(a3[::-1])

The third way is to reverse the list using the slice syntax, where the step parameter is set to -1.

\$ ./reversing.py

[‘eagle’, ‘tiger’, ‘lion’, ‘bear’]

[‘eagle’, ‘tiger’, ‘lion’, ‘bear’]

[‘eagle’, ‘tiger’, ‘lion’, ‘bear’]

All the three lists were reversed OK.

Python list comprehensions

A list comprehension is a syntactic construct which creates a list based on existing list. The syntax was influenced by mathematical notation of sets. The Python syntax was inspired by the Haskell programming language.

L = [expression for variable in sequence [if condition]]

The above pseudo code shows the syntax of a list comprehension. A list comprehension creates a new list. It is based on an existing list. A for loop goes through the sequence. For each loop an expression is evaluated if the condition is met. If the value is computed it is appended to the new list. The condition is optional.

List comprehensions provide a more concise way to create lists in situations where map and filter and/or nested loops could be used.

list_comprehension.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# list_comprehension.py

a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

b = [e for e in a if e % 2]

print(b)

In the example we have defined a list of numbers. With the help of the list comprehension, we create a new list of numbers that cannot be divided by 2 without a remainder.

a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

b = [e for e in a if e % 2]

Here we have the list comprehension. In the for e in a loop each element of a list is taken. Then a if e % 2 condition is tested. If the condition is met, an expression is evaluated. In our case the expression is a pure e which takes the element as it is. Finally, the element is appended to the list.

\$ ./list_comprehension.py

[1, 3, 5, 7, 9]

Example output. The numbers in a list cannot be divided by 2, without a remainder.

In the second example we compare a list comprehension to a traditional for loop.

list_comprehension2.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# list_comprehension2.py

lang = “Python”

a = []

for e in lang:

a.append(ord(e))

b = [ord(e) for e in lang]

print(a)

print(b)

In the example we have a string. We want to create a list of the ASCII integer codes of the letters of the string.

a = []

for e in lang:

a.append(ord(e))

We create such a list with the for loop.

b = [ord(e) for e in lang]

Here the same is produced using a list comprehension. Note that the if condition was omitted. It is optional.

\$ ./list_comprehension2.py

[80, 121, 116, 104, 111, 110]

[80, 121, 116, 104, 111, 110]

This is example output. You can find out more about list comprehensions in Python list comprehensions tutorial.

Python map and filter functions

The map and filter functions are mass functions that work on all list items. They are part of the functional programming built into the Python language.

Today, it is recommended to use list comprehensions instead of these functions where possible.

map_fun.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# map_fun.py

def to_upper(s):

return s.upper()

words = [“stone”, “cloud”, “dream”, “sky”]

words2 = list(map(to_upper, words))

print(words2)

The map function applies a particular function to every element of a list.

def to_upper(s):

return s.upper()

This is the definition of the function that will be applied to every list element. It calls the upper string method on a given string.

words = [“stone”, “cloud”, “dream”, “sky”]

words2 = map(to_upper, words)

print(words2)

The map function applies the to_upper function to every string element of the words list. A new list is formed and returned back. We print it to the console.

\$ ./map_fun.py

[‘STONE’, ‘CLOUD’, ‘DREAM’, ‘SKY’]

Every item of the list is in capital letters.

The filter function constructs a list from those elements of the list for which a function returns true.

filter_fun.py#!/usr/bin/env python

# filter_fun.py

def positive(x):

return x > 0

n = [-2, 0, 1, 2, -3, 4, 4, -1]

print(list(filter(positive, n)))

An example demonstrating the filter function. It will create a new list having only positive values. It will filter out all negative values and 0.

def positive(x):

return x > 0

This is the definition of the function used by the filter function. It returns True or False. Functions that return a boolean value are called predicates.

\$ ./filter_fun.py

[1, 2, 4, 4]

In this part of the Python tutorial, we have described Python lists.

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