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Thủ Thuật Hướng dẫn Autism spectrum disorder is a disorder characterized by deficient social interaction and an impaired Đầy đủ 2022

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social, communication skills and repetitive behaviors that significantly impair daily functioning (APA, 2013). As the name suggests, the difficulties presented are situated on a spectrum and often vary from one person to the next.

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    Resources from APA
    News from APA
    Continuing education
    Magination Press children’s books
    Journal special issues
    Overview
    What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previously called autism and pervasive developmental disorders?
    What is the difference between autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
    When might you begin to wonder if your child has autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
    How common is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
    Symptoms and Causes
    What causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
    Are siblings greater risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
    Do vaccines cause autism (ASD)?
    What are the signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
    Diagnosis and Tests
    How is autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosed?
    Management and Treatment
    How is autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treated?
    Outlook / Prognosis
    What is the outlook for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
    What is characterized of deficient social interaction and impaired?
    Is characteristic of deficient social interaction?
    What is autism psychology?
    When was autism spectrum disorder described as a separate clinical category?

Over the past decade, ASD has been the most rapidly growing developmental delay with

children and teenagers in public schools, accounting for almost 1% of school-aged children (Ghali, et al., 2014). Contrary to popular belief, this increased prevalence is not the result of an “epidemic,” but rather that of increased knowledge, increased awareness, and increasingly accessible screening services (Fombonne, 2012). While certain autism symptoms can be identified a very young age (under 2 years old), diagnoses are generally difficult to establish that age due to the large

variation in children’s development.

At present, ASD is attributed to genetic, environmental and neurological factors. Approximately 10% of individuals with ASD seem to have a genetic component such as a new mutation. As for the other variables, different risk factors (advanced parental age, viral infection during pregnancy, pollutants, medications during pregnancy, etc.) could interact and subsequently increase the risk of developing the disorder (Chaste et al., 2012; Gardener et al.,

2009; Levy, 2009). To this end, it is important to note that those are not necessarily causal factors but rather risk factors. Lastly, although the cerebral functioning of individuals with ASD has not reached unanimity in the literature, some studies seem to suggest that the two hemispheres of the brain do not seem to be optimally synchronized, thus affecting their information processing (Dinstein et al.2011).

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers any one of a group of disorders with an onset typically occurring during the preschool years and characterized by difficulties with social

communication and social interaction and restricted and repetitive patterns in behaviors, interests, and activities.

The term “spectrum” is used because of the heterogeneity in the presentation and severity of ASD symptoms, as well as in the skills and level of functioning of individuals who have ASD.

Autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and childhood disintegrative disorder are no longer considered distinct diagnoses, and medical or genetic disorders that may be associated with ASD, such as

Rett’s syndrome, are identified only as specifiers of the disorder.

Adapted from the APA Dictionary of Psychology

Resources from APA
Podcasts
News from APA
Continuing education
APA books
Magination Press children’s books
Journal special issues

Last updated: August 2022Date created: June 2008

Overview

What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previously called autism and pervasive developmental disorders?

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the following:

    Difficulties in social communication differences, including verbal and nonverbal communication.
    Deficits

    in social interactions.

    Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities and sensory problems

Many of those with ASD can have delayed or absence of language development, intellectual disabilities, poor motor coordination and attention weaknesses.

What is the difference between autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

The term autism was changed to autism spectrum

disorder in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association. ASD is now an umbrella term that covers the following conditions:

    Autistic disorder.
    Pervasive developmental disorder — not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS).
    Asperger syndrome.

People with ASD have trouble with social interactions and with interpreting and using non-verbal and verbal communication in social contexts. Individuals with ASD may also have the following difficulties:

    Inflexible

    interests.

    Insistence on sameness in environment or routine.
    Repetitive motor and sensory behaviors, like flapping arms or rocking.
    Increased or decreased reactions to sensory stimuli.

How well someone with ASD can function in day-to-day life depends on the severity of their symptoms. Given that autism varies widely in severity and everyday impairment, the symptoms of some people aren’t always easily recognized.

When might you begin to wonder if your child has autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

While ASD is believed to be a disorder of very early brain development, the behavioral signs of autism characteristics surface between age 1 and ½ years of age and 3 years of age.

How common is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Based on most recent CDC report, ASD is

estimated to affect about 1 in 54 children, with boys being more likely to have ASD than girls. There were more than 5 million adults in the US, or 2.21% of the population, with ASD as of 2022. Government statistics suggest that the prevalence of ASD (how common it is) has risen 10% to 17% in recent years.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

There

is no clear-cut cause of ASD. Some causes that are supported by research include genetic and some environmental factors. Specific genetic causes can only be identified in 10% to 20% of cases. These cases include specific genetic syndromes associated with ASD and rare changes in the genetic code.

Risk factors include older parental age, low birth weight, prematurity and maternal use of valproic acid or thalidomide during pregnancy, among others. This field of study is an active one for

research.

Are siblings greater risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

The truth is that genetics do play a role in autism. When one child is diagnosed with ASD, the next child to come along has about a 20% greater risk of developing autism than normal. When the first two children in a family have both been diagnosed with ASD, the third child has about a 32% greater risk of developing ASD.

Do vaccines cause autism (ASD)?

Many scientifically-sound studies have proven that vaccines do not cause autism. When children suddenly show symptoms of ASD, some parents mistakenly blame a recent vaccination. No reliable study has found any proven link between childhood vaccination and autism.

What are the signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

Signs of ASD range from mild to

severely disabling, and every person is different. The following signs are considered to be red flags that indicate your young child may be risk for autism. If your child shows any of the following signs, please get in touch with your child’s healthcare provider to discuss a referral for an autism evaluation.

The signs include the following:

Diagnosis and Tests

How is autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosed?

There are no laboratory tests to determine ASD. However, certain healthcare providers receive specific training and can do screenings and evaluations if needed and who might ask parents or teachers to record observations. These providers might include specialized physicians, psychologists

and speech-language pathologists.

Management and Treatment

How is autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treated?

ASD is most often a life-long condition. Both children and adults with autism benefit from behavioral interventions or therapies that can teach new skills to address the core deficits of autism and to reduce the core symptoms. Every child and adult with autism is

unique. For this reason, the treatment plan is individualized to meet specific needs. It is best to begin interventions as soon as possible, so the benefits of therapy can continue on throughout the course of life.

Many people with ASD often have additional medical conditions, such as gastrointestinal and feeding issues,

seizures and sleep disturbances. Treatment can involve behavioral therapy, medications or both.

Early intensive behavioral treatments involves the entire family and possibly a team of professionals. As your child ages and develops, treatment may be modified to cater to their specific needs.

During adolescence, children benefit from transition services that promote skills

of independence essential in adulthood. The focus that point is on employment opportunities and job skill training.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the outlook for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?

In many cases, the symptoms of ASD become less pronounced as a child gets older. Parents of children with ASD may need to be flexible and ready to

adjust treatment as needed for their child.

People with ASD may go on to live typical lives, but there is often need for continued services and tư vấn as they age. The needs depend on the severity of the symptoms. For most, it’s a lifelong condition that may require ongoing supports.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Through research, there has been much that has been learned about autism spectrum disorder over the past 20 years. There is ongoing active research

on the causes of ASD, early detection and diagnosis, prevention and treatments.

What is characterized of deficient social interaction and impaired?

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social, communication skills and repetitive behaviors that significantly impair daily functioning (APA, 2013).

Is characteristic of deficient social interaction?

Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others’ emotional states is most characteristic of: autism spectrum disorder.

What is autism psychology?

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder encompassing severe abnormalities in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, accompanied by restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. These behavioural symptoms are present in very early childhood, before the age of 36 months.

When was autism spectrum disorder described as a separate clinical category?

The DSM-III, published in 1980, established autism as its own separate diagnosis and described it as a “pervasive developmental disorder” distinct from schizophrenia.

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